Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

Normal Size Small Size show me how

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# Stats Exam 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Statistics | set of methods and rules for organizing, summarizing and interpreting data |

Data | observations or measurements |

Population | the set of individuals of interest in a particular study |

Sample | a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study. |

Parameter | characteristics (usually numerical) of a population, usually derived from the measurements if the individuals in the sample (mean, median, mode) |

Statistic | characteristic (usually numerical) of a sample, usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the sample (estimate because it is a sample) |

Descriptive Statistics | summarizes, organizes and simplifies data, a statistical procedure |

Inferential Statistics | uses sample data to make generalizations to a population |

Sampling Error | the discrepancy that exists between a sample statistic and a population parameter, the natural differences that exist by chance |

Dependent Variable | the one that us observed to assess the effect of the treatment |

Independent Variable | the variable that is manipulated by the researcher |

Confounding Variables (Confounds) | a variable that unintentionally is allowed to vary with the independent variable and therefore the researcher does not know if the independent variable or the confounding variable causes the results |

Construct | a hypothetical concept used in theories, internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior |

Operational Definition | describes a set of operations or procedures for measuring a construct and it defines the construct in terms of the resulting measurement |

Discrete Variable | consists of separate indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories, restricted to whole countable numbers |

Continuous Variable | there are infinite number of possible values that fall between any two observed values, it is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts, usually rounded off |

Scales of Measurement | the complete set of measures and the relationships between the categories |

Nominal Scale | consists of a set of categories that have different names, numbers represent categories (ex: 1= female 2=male) |

Ordinal Scale | consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence, rank (ex: 1= first place 2= second place 3= third place) |

Interval scale | consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size, the zero point is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured |

Ratio Scale | an interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero point |

Quasi experiment | an almost experiment |

Differential Research | study in which you can not randomly assign people to groups, they fall into specific groups because of certain characteristics they have (ex: gender) |

Time Series Research | measure you at 1 time then give you some treatment then measure you a second time but you can't control what happens between that time, you don't know what other factors come in between that treatment |

Frequency Distribution | an organized tabulation of the number of individuals located in each category on the scale of measurements, takes disorganized set of scores and places them in order from highest to lowest, grouping together all individuals with the same score. |

Measures of central tendency | score that best represents frequency distribution (mode, median, mean) |

4 times to use median | ordinal data, skewed distribution, open ended distribution, undetermined values |

Measures of Variability | gives you a number that indicates how far apart the numbers are from one another |

Range and why is it not often used? | tells you distance from very lowest point to the very highest point and often not used because unstable and insensitive |

Created by:
madison125612