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February 12, 2012

A&P Respiratory System

Diffusion is the process that moves air into and out of the lungs...True or False? True
For inspiration to take place, the diaphram and other respiratory muscles relax...True or False? False- contract
The exchange of gases that occurs between blood in tissue capillaries and the body cells is Internal or external respitation? Internal Respiration
Cellular Respiration The process that releases energy from nutrients to form ATP
Diffusion The passive movement of molecules from an area of higher consentration to and area of lower consentration...Internal and External Respiration
Internal Respiration The exchange of gases between the cells of the body and into the blood
External Respiration the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air in the lungs and the blood
Tidal Volume The volume of air exchange in quiet breathing cycle is about 500 ml
Residual Volume (RV) About 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs after maximum forced expiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) The maxumum volume of ari that can be forcefully exhaled after the tidal expiration is about 1100 ml
the term that means the same thing as breathing is Pulmonary Ventilation
Most of the oxygen transported by blood is bound to hemoglobin True or False... True- Oxyhemoglobin
An acute inflammation of the lung in which the alveoli and bronchi become plugged with thick fluid is called Pheumonia
This may result from the prgression of chronic bronchitis or other conditions as sir becomes trapped whithin alveoli, causeing them to enlarge and rventually rupture Emphysema
What is an obstructive disorder characterized by resurring spasms of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchial air passages Asthma
Pulmonary Ventilation/Breathing movement of air into and out of the lungs
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air in the lungs and blood in the lungs is called _________ respiration External
What are the components of the lower Respiratory tract? Bronchial tree, Lungs, part of the Trachea
What are the components of the upper respiratory tract? Nose, Pharynx, Larynx, and part of the Trachea
Which component of the respiratory tract is part of both the upper and lowwer tracts? Trachea
What are the air filled cavities in the bones surrounding the nasal cavity? Paranasal Sinuses
What is the function of the nasal epithelium? Moisens incoming air, warms air as we inhale
The passage way that serves both the respiratory and digestive system is the... Pharynx
What is the cartilaginous flap that prevents food from entering the larynx? Epiglottis
The trachea branches to form two air passages called the.... Left and right primary bronchi
as exchange in the lungs occurs between blood in capillaries and air in the...(what structure) Alveoli
What are the primary breathing muscles? Diaphram and External Intercostal Muscles
Atelectasis Incomplete expansion or collapse of a lung
Respiration Exchange of respiratory gases between the body and cells
Describe the three pressures important in breathing 1. Atmosperic Pressure 2. Intra-Alveolar (intrapulmonary) pressure 3. Intrapleural Pressure
Atmopheric Pressure Fores air into lungs. At sea level is 760 mmHg but the higher you go it decreases because there is less air in higher elevations
Inrta- alveolar (Intrapulmonary) Pressure air pressure within the lungs. When breathing in and out, pressure fluctuates between being lower than atmospheric pressure and higher than atmospheric pressure
Intrapleural Pressure Pressure within the pleural cavity. Normal is 756mmHg "negitive pressure" keeps the lungs pressed against the inner walls of the thorax, enev when expanding and contracting. if even with atmospheric pressure lungs would collapse
A slightly negative pressure within pleural cavity is essential for lung function... True or False? TRUE... If the intrapleural pressure was equal with atmospheric pressure lungs would collapse and be nonfunctional
What is the most important muscle of inspiration? Diaphram
What are the muscles of expiration? None- forcefull is external intercostal muscles and abdomin wall which forces abdomin viscera and diaphram upward
When are the muscles of expiration used When we forcefully breath outward
The collapse of the alveoli following expiration is prevented by what substance in the aveoli? Surfactant- Mixture of lipoproteins secreted by special cells in the alveoli
A breathing cycle one inspiration followed by one expiration
Breathing is controlled by the respiratory center which is located where? In the Pons and the Medulla
The process of gas exchange in the lungs and in the body tissue occurs by what process? cardiovascular system
The medulla contains the respiratory center. It is composed of what two components? Inspiratory area and the Expiratory area
What are the factors that influence breathing? List and describe them Chemicals Inflation Reflex Higher Brain Centers Body temperature
The respiratory center in the __________ coordinates the rhythmic inspiration and expiration of quiet breathing The Medulla
The respiratory center is NOT sensitive to a DECLINE in the oxygen concentration in the blood...TRUE or FALSE? True Carbonized
An increase in body temperature has what effect on the breathing rate? Increase Breathing Rate
Eupnea Normal Breathing
Hyperventilation Rapid or deep breathing. Can occur with panic attacks or anziety
Hypoventilation Too shallow or too slow breathing
Dyspnea SOB
Orthopnea Diffuculty breathing exept when sitting or standing
Apnea Pause in breathing
Cheyne-Stokes Respirations Irregular breathing often seen in last days of life. Altering periods of shallow and deep breathing
Respiratory Arrest Sudden sensation of spontaneous respirations
Kussmaul Respirations Very deep and labored breathing with
Asthma Chronic inflammation and constriction of the respiratory passages
Acute/Chronis Bronchitis Inflammation of bronchi accompanied by excessive mucus production partially obstructing air flow
Common Cold A virus caused inflammation of air passages and associated structures
Emphysema A lung disorder in which aleolar walls rupture and reducing the respitatory surface
Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural membranes
Pneumonia An acute inflammation of the alveoli caused by bacterial or viral infection
Rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal cavity
Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses
Tuberculosis Inflammation of the lungs caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
Lung Cancer Longterm exposure to irritants (cigarettes) metastasizes quickly
Pulmonary Edema Accumulation of fluid in the lungs
Respiratory Distress Syndrome Disease of newborn infants that are born prematurely due to insufficient surfactant production in alveoli
Oxygen is primarily transported as... Oxyhemoglobin
Carbon Dioxide is primarily transported as _________________ in the blood Bicarbonate Ions
Would pulmonary embolism, respiratory distress syndrome and emphysema decrease gas exchange in the lungs? Explain YES- Causes brief periods of aphea. Embolism can cause cardiaca
The chemoreceptors in the resiratory center are sensitive to change in the consentrations of ________ and _______ in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid CO2 and H+
Dose the concentration of oxygen in the blood stimulate the initiation of breathing? YES or NO No. Corbon dioxide and hydrogen ions
A reduced rate and depth of ventilation causes and leads to carbon dioxide retention resulting in an acid base imbalance known as... Respiratory Acistosis
An increase rate and depth of ventilation causes ________________ and leads to elimination of carbon dioxide. This acid base imbalance is known as_____________________________ Hyperventalation; respiratory alkalousis
Created by: bjbert