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Soluitions/Colliods

Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Solution Homogeneous or uniform of 2 or more substances
Solvent The compund of a solution present in the greatest amount
Solute The component of a solution present in the smallest amount
The solubility of a solute Amount of solute that will dissolve in a givem amount of solvent
Like dissolves like-nature of the solvent and the soulte The more similar 2 compounds are the more likely that 1 will be soluble in the other
Saturated solution one in which the solvent has dissolved all th solute it can at a particular temperature.
Unsaturated solution Contains less solute thatn the solvent can dissolve at a given temperature
Superaturated solution An unstable solution in which the solvent has dissolved more solute than it theoretically can at that temperature
Homogeneous Substance dissolves in water to form a solution. Appears totally uniform with no visible boundaries between 1 substance and another.
Heterogeneous Substance that does not dissolve in water, the mixture contains tiny pieces of undissolved, suspended solid.
Liqiud in Liquid solutions - Miscible Substances completely mix
Liquid in liquid solutions - partly miscible limited solubility in ach other
Liquid in liquid solutions - immiscible Substances do not dissolve in each other
Solubility - Temperature 1. Most solids and liquids that dissolve in liquids, the rule is solubility increases with increasing temperature. 2. Supersaturated solutions are not stable indefinitely. 3. For gases, solubility in liquids almost always decreases with ^ in temperature
Solubility - Pressure Gases apply Henry's Law - higher pressure the greater the solubility of a gas in liquid.
General Rules of Solubility 1. All compounds of the alkali metals (Group IA) and the ammonium ion(NH4+) are soluble. 2. All compounds containing nitrate(NO3-), chlorate(ClO3-) and perchlorate(ClO4-) are soluble.
General Rules of Solubility 3. Most hydroxides(OH-) are insoluble except those of the alkai metals and Ba(OH2) and Ca(OH2). 4. Most compounds containing Cl- Br and I- are soluble except those containing Ag+ Hg+ and Pb2+.
General Rules of Solubility 5. All carbonates, phosphates and sulfides are insoluble except those of the alkai metals and NH4+. 6. Most sulfates are soluble. CaSO4 and AgSO4 are slightly soluble, BaSO4 HgSO4 and PbSO4 are insoluble.
Henry's Law Solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the resultant solution.
Ration of 2 quantities Amount of solute/amount of solution
Strong acids Soluble - 1st letter a H
Strong bases Soluble - end with hydroxide of group IA and IIA