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Toefl Vocabulary

Section I - Lesson 1

WordMeaningSynonymsAntonymspart of speechSample Sentences 1Sample Sentences 2
Constraint restriction; artificial manner, unnatural manner; force
Contamination pollution, something which contaminates; spreading of impurities; infection (by a disease)
Deplete exhaust, consume, use up, empty, reduce
Dispose of get rid of, settle, give away or sell
Elementally simply, in an elemental manner
Emission discharge, emanation; ejection of fluids from the body
Extinction extinguishment; annihilation, total destruction
Reservoir large lake for storing water; container used to collect and store water; additional supply, reserve; area or location where something is stored (esp. liquid)
Shrink n. psychiatrist (Slang); instance of contracting, instance of becoming smaller; flinching, recoiling
Stable n. structure in which horses and other animals are housed; racing establishment; race horses belonging to a racing establishment v. put in a stable, keep in a stable; live in a stable; live as if in a stable
Diminish to become or to make sth become smaller, weaker, etc. Decrease (blank) The world's resources are rapidly diminishing. His influence has diminished with time Our efforts were producing diminishing returns (= we achieved less although we spent more time or money).
Perceive to notice or become aware of sth (blank) (blank) I perceived a change in his behaviour. She perceived that all was not well. The patient was perceived to have difficulty in breathing. This discovery was perceived as a major breakthrough. A science degree and artistic interests are often perceived as incompatible. They were widely perceived to have been unlucky.
Auspicious showing signs that sth is likely to be successful in the future Promising INAUSPICIOUS Adjective an auspicious start to the new school year * It was an auspicious date for a wedding. * Their first meeting was hardly auspicious.
Witness to see sth happen because you are there when it happens eyewitness (blank) Police have appealed for witnesses to the accident. * We have a witness to the killing. Several witnesses testified that there had been two gunmen.
Aberration a fact, an action or a way of behaving that is not usual, and that may be unacceptable Abnormality, Deviation (blank) Noun a temporary aberration of his exhausted mind * A childless woman was regarded as an aberration, almost a social outcast.
Affinity a strong feeling that you understand sb/sth and like them or it (blank) (blank) Noun Sam was born in the country and had a deep affinity with nature. * Humans have a special affinity for dolphins. There is a close affinity between Italian and Spanish.
Affluence having a lot of money and a good standard of living: Wealth; Riches (blank) Noun affluent Western countries, The 1950s were an age of affluence in America. a very affluent neighbourhood
Alienation to make sb less friendly or sympathetic towards you ISOLATION, detachment (blank) Noun His comments have alienated a lot of young voters. The new policy resulted in the alienation of many voters. Very talented children may feel alienated from the others in their class. Many immigrants suffer from a sense of alienation.
Dichotomy the separation that exists between two groups or things that are completely opposite to and different from each other CONTRAST, difference, polarity, conflict; gulf, chasm, division, separation, split (blank) Noun In economics, the classical dichotomy is the division between the real side of the economy and the monetary side. A false dichotomy is a logical fallacy consisting of a supposed dichotomy which fails one or both of the conditions: it is not jointly exhaustive or not mutually exclusive.
Empathy the ability to understand another person's feelings, experience, etc sympathy, vicarious emotion, understanding (blank) Noun both authors have the skill to make you feel empathy with their heroines they had great sympathy for the flood victims
Enigma a person, thing or situation that is mysterious and difficult to understand (blank) (blank) (blank) Even after years he still remains an enigma to me. (blank)
fiasco A complete Failure (blank) (blank) Noun The party was a complete fiasco. What a fiasco!
Quintessence the perfect example of sth, the perfect example of sth (blank) (blank) Noun It was the quintessence of an English manor house. a painting that captures the quintessence of Viennese elegance
Abhor to hate sth, for example a way of behaving or thinking, especially for moral reasons detest; hate; dislike (blank) Verb I abhor the dull routine of existence. I crave for mental exaltation. — Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930); Sherlock Holmes in the Sign of Four (1890) he problem with Establishment Republicans is they abhor the unseemliness of a political brawl
Alleviate to make sth less severe,make (pain or difficulty) less severe Ease; Reduce (blank) Verb A number of measures were taken to alleviate the problem. the alleviation of poverty
Ambivalence having mixed feelings or opinions about something or someone. Uncertainty (blank) Noun There was ambivalence among church members about women becoming priests. She seems to feel ambivalent about her new job. Many people feel some ambivalence towards television and its effect on our lives. He has an ambivalent attitude towards her.
Banal very ordinary and containing nothing that is interesting or important; tediously unoriginal or commonplace. commonplace; trite; hackneyed (blank) Adjective a banal conversation about the weather The long story had many banal ideas in it, so it lost the interest of its readers.
Clandestine done secretly or kept secret SECRET, covert, furtive, surreptitious, stealthy, cloak-and-dagger, hole-and-corner, closet, backstairs, hugger-mugger; informal hush-hush. (blank) Adjective a clandestine meeting / relationship the clandestine sale of weapons
Debilitate make very weak and infirm. to make sb's body or mind weaker WEAKEN, enfeeble, enervate, devitalize, sap, drain, exhaust, weary, fatigue, prostrate; undermine, impair, indispose, incapacitate, cripple, disable, paralyse, immobilize, lay low; informal knock out, do in. invigorate Verb a debilitating disease ; The troops were severely debilitated by hunger and disease She found the heat debilitating. Prolonged strike action debilitated the industry. The economy is now strengthening after a long and debilitating recession.
Trepidation great worry or fear about sth unpleasant that may happen FEAR, apprehension, dread, fearfulness, agitation, anxiety, worry, nervousness, tension, misgivings, unease, uneasiness, foreboding, disquiet, dismay, consternation, alarm, panic; informal butterflies, jitteriness, the jitters, a cold sweat, a blue funk, equanimity, composure Noun He knocked on the door with some trepidation. (blank)
Vestige a small part of sth that still exists after the rest of it has stopped existing sign, mark, trace; remnant (blank) Noun the last vestiges of the old colonial regime There's not a vestige of truth in the rumour. His report offered not a vestige of comfort.
belated coming or happening late LATE, overdue, behindhand, behind time, behind schedule, delayed, tardy, unpunctual. early Adjective a belated birthday present; the government's belated response to the report on nursery education
trespass to enter land or a building that you do not have permission or the right to enter: (blank) (blank) (blank) He told me I was trespassing on private land. The sign on the fence said 'No trespassing'.
recklessness without thought or care for the consequences of an action rashness, hastiness, impulsiveness, heedlessness (blank) Noun She had fallen hopelessly and recklessly in love He showed a reckless disregard for his own safety.
soothe to make sb who is anxious, upset, etc. feel calmer CALM (DOWN), pacify, comfort, hush, quiet agitate, aggravate Verb The music soothed her for a while Take a warm bath to soothe tense, tired muscles
astrological (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
divination (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
haunt (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
horror (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
intermediary (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
invoke (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
meditate (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
phantom (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
pyschic (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-perpetuating (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
astronomy (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
dim (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
contemplation (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
haunted house (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
accuser (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
scuffle small fight (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
denounce publicly declare to be wrong or evil. (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
liable responsible by law; legally answerable (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
fury extreme anger (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
confront stand or meet face to face with hostile intent (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
overlook fail to notice. ▶ignore or disregard (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
ridicule mockery or derision (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
derision contemptuous ridicule or mockery (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
shatter break or cause to break suddenly and violently into pieces ▶damage or destroy (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
prominent important or famous (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
smashed very drunk (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
wrath extreme anger (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
condemned express complete disapproval of (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
encounter unexpectedly meet or be faced with (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
prone likely or liable to suffer from, do, or experience (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
admonish reprimand firmly. ▶earnestly urge or warn (blank) (blank) (blank) he was severely admonished by his father (blank)
reprimand a formal expression of disapproval (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
earnest sincere and very serious (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
dignity the state or quality of being worthy of honour or respect (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
stand on one's dignity insist on being treated with due respect. (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
appease placate (someone) by acceding to their demands. (blank) (blank) (blank) an attempt to appease his critics (blank)
placate calm, pacify, or appease (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
cognet (of an argument or case) clear, logical, and convincing CONVINCING, compelling, strong, forceful, powerful, potent, weighty, effective; valid, sound, plausible, telling; impressive, persuasive, eloquent, credible, influential; conclusive, authoritative; logical, reasoned, rational, reasonable, lucid, coherent, (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
waver move quiveringly; flicker (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
demean cause to suffer a severe loss of dignity or respect. ▶(demean oneself) do something that is beneath one's dignity. (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
impede delay or block the progress or action of HINDER, obstruct, hamper, hold back/up, delay, interfere with, disrupt (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
hinder make it difficult for (someone) to do something or for (something) to happen. (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
rationalize attempt to justify (an action or attitude) with logical reasoning (blank) (blank) (blank) he tried to rationalize his behaviour (blank)
scrutinize examine or inspect closely and thoroughly EXAMINE, inspect, survey, study (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
ransack go hurriedly through (a place) stealing things and causing damage (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
sordid dirty or squalid; involving ignoble actions and motives (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
vacilliate waver between different opinions or actions DITHER, be indecisive, be undecided, waver (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
vacuous showing a lack of thought or intelligence; empty SILLY, inane, unintelligent, foolish, stupid, fatuous, idiotic, brainless (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
adulterate make (something) poorer in quality by adding another substance. MAKE IMPURE, degrade, debase, spoil, taint, contaminate; purify (blank) (blank) (blank)
extricate free from a constraint or difficulty EXTRACT, free, release (blank) (blank) informal get someone/oneself off the hook. (blank)
intricate very complicated or detailed COMPLEX, complicated, convoluted, tangled, entangled, twisted; elaborate, ornate, detailed, involuted; Brit. informal fiddly (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
corroborate confirm or give support to (a statement or theory). CONFIRM, verify, endorse, ratify (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
dissipate be or cause to be dispelled or dispersed; DISAPPEAR (blank) (blank) (blank) his anger dissipated (blank)
squander waste in a reckless or foolish manner WASTE, misspend, misuse manage, make good use of, save (blank) (blank) (blank)
eclectic deriving ideas or style from a broad and diverse range of sources WIDE-RANGING, broad-based, extensive, comprehensive (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
fetid smelling unpleasant (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
odor a distinctive smell (blank) (blank) (blank) be in good (or bad) odour informal be in or out of favour. (blank)
stinking foul-smelling (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
felicitous well chosen or appropriate (blank) (blank) (blank) his nickname was particularly felicitous: the room's only felicitous feature
inhibit hinder, restrain, or prevent (an action or process) IMPEDE, hinder, hamper, hold back assist, encourage, allow (blank) she feels inhibited from taking part (blank)
refute prove (a statement or the person advancing it) to be wrong (blank) (blank) (blank) I absolutely refute the charges made against me attempts to refute Einstein's theory
usurp take (a position of power) illegally or by force. ▶supplant (someone in power). SEIZE (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
muzzle the projecting part of the face, including the nose and mouth, of an animal such as a dog or horse; prevent from freedom of expression (blank) (blank) (blank) attempts to muzzle the media (blank)
repress restrain, prevent, or inhibit hold back (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
smother suffocate by covering the nose and mouth (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
Created by: ramz