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AS F332 halogens

AS chem OCR B halogens

where are the halogens on the periodic table? group 7 - non-metals
what is the appearance of fluorine at room temperature? a pale yellow gas
what is the appearance of chlorine at room temperature? a green gas
what is the appearance of bromine at room temperature? a dark red, volatile liquid
what is the appearance of iodine at room temperature? a shiny black solid which sublimes (turns from a solid to a gas with no liquid phase) to form a purple vapour on heating
what colour is a solution of chlorine in water? pale green
what colour is a solution of chlorine in hexane? pale green
what colour is a solution of bromine in water? red-brown
what colour is a solution of bromine in hexane? red
what colour is a solution of iodine in water? brown
what colour is a solution of iodine in hexane? violet
What is the usual oxidation number of the halogens in compounds and what are the exceptions? Fluorine is always -1 in compounds, the others are usually -1 unless they are attached to fluorine or oxygen when they become positive
what sort of bonding is formed within halogen molecules? a single covalent bond
what is the strongest intermolecular force present in the halogens? instantaneous dipole - induced dipole forces of attraction
why is iodine a solid at room temperature when chlorine is a gas? there are more / stronger instantaneous dipole - induced dipole forces of attraction present in iodine as it is a larger molecule and has more electrons
what is a halide ion? it is a halogen that has gained an electron to form a negative ion (e.g. F-)
how do halogens react with halides? a more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive halide from its salt e.g. Cl2 + 2I- goes to 2Cl- + I2
what is the pattern in the reactivity of the halogens? Reactivity increases up the group (F>Cl>Br>I)
what is the pattern in electronegativity of the halogens? Electronegativity increases up the group (F > Cl > Br > I)
what is the general reaction between silver ions and a halogen? a precipitation reaction Ag+ (aq) + X- (aq) goes to AgX (s)
what are the colours of the precipitates of the silver halides? silver chloride = white, silver bromide = cream, silver iodide = yellow
Created by: jmccreary



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