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CHE-125 Ch. 3

Dalton's Atomic Theorey 1-3 1. all matter is made up of atoms 2. atoms of the same element are alike and are different from other elements 3. Chemical compounds are made up of spefic combinations of atoms.
Dalton's Atomic Theorey 4-5 4 atoms of different alements can combine in various raitons to make diff. compunds 5. Chemical reacitons change the way atoms are combined not he atoms themselves.
Atoms are divided into 3 parts: from small->larger: Electrons (-1), and Neutrons (0), Protons (+1).
Atom Composition Nuclues contains P's and N's and contains most of the mass. Nuclues surrounded by electron cloud. Nucleus: Marble, Elec. Coud: football stadium. Density of nucleus= Large M/Small V
The Gold Foil Expieriment done by Rutherford, using alpha particle source, detector material and gold foil. When alpha particles go through electron cloud the pass through, when the hit nucleus they bounce back.
Atomic Number (Z) = number of protons / electrons
Atomis Mass (A) = number of protons + nuetrons
Isotopes Same elements but diff. # of nuetrons.
AMU -> Grams conversion 1amu=1.6606 * 10^(-24)g
Main Group 1,2,13-18
Transition Metal 3-12
Alkali Metals 1A(Except H): Soft,react very vigourously w?water, lustrous, onlt found in nature in compunds.
Alkaline Earth Metals 2A similar to 1A but less extreme
Halogens 7A: Colorful, corrosive, reactive, found only as compunds in nature, usually with Alk. metals.
Noble Gases 8A: all elements are gases, don't react, never found as compunds.
Periodic Table History Mendeleev: father of P.T., 1st published in 1869, ordered by mass number (at the time).
Electorn Config. Energy Levels N=energy level. As n increases electrons are further away from nuclues and energy increases.
Shell #'s 4
Sublevels 1(S)....2(S,P)....3(S,P,D)....4(S,P,D,F).
Orbitals for each subshell? S(1)...P(3)...D(5)....F(7)
# of electrons held by each SUBSHELL? S(2)....P(6)....D(10)....F(14)
HOw many electrons can 1 orbital hold? 2
How to determine how many valence electrons through P.T.? Roman Numerals
How to determine the valence shell through P.T. Period Number
How to abrev. electron configuration? Take element, up one row, and to the right to the the noble gas.
S Block 1A & 2A
D Block Transition elements
P Block 3A-8A
F Block 2 bottom rows
Created by: kaelin.steele