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Chem Vocab Ch 1-2

Chemistry For Today Chapters 1-2 Vocab

matter anything that has mass and occupies space
mass a measurement of the amount of matter in an object
weight a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object
physical properties properties of matter that can be observed or measured without trying to change the composition of the matter being studied
chemical properties properties matter demonstrates when attempts are made to change it into new substances
physical changes changes matter undergoes without changing composition
chemical changes changes matter undergoes that involve changes in composition
scientific models explanations for observed behavior in nature
molecule the smallest particle of a pure substance that has the properties of that substance and is capable of stable, independent existance.
diatomic molecules molecules that contain two atoms
homoatomic molecules molecules that contain only one kind of atom
heteroatomic molecules molecules that contain two or more kind of atoms
triatomic molecules molecules that contain three atoms
polyatomic molecules molecules that contain more than three atoms
atom the limit of chemical subdivision for matter
pure substance matter that has a constant composition and fixed properties
mixture a physical blend of matter that can theoretically by physically separated into two or more components
homogenous matter matter that has the same properties throughout the sample
solutions homogenous mixtures of two or more substances
heterogenous matter matter with properties that are not the same throughout the sample
element a pure substance consisting of only one kind of atom in the form of homoatomic molecueles or individual atoms
compound a pure substance consisting of two or more kinds of atoms in the form of heteroatomic molecules or individual atoms
basic unit of measurement a specific unit from which other units for the same quantity are obtained by multiplication or division
derived unit of measurement a unit obtained by multiplication or division of one or more basic units
scientific notation a way of representing numbers consisting of a product between a single digit number and a 10 raised to a whole number exponent that may be positive or negative
standard position for a decimal in scientific notation, the position to the right of the first nonzero digi in the nonexponential number
significant figures the numbers in a measurement that represent the certainty of the measurement, plus one number representing an estimate
exact numbers numbers that have no uncertainty; numbers from defined relationships, counting numbers, and numbers that are part of simple fractions
factors used in the factor unit method fractions obtained from numerical relationships between quantities
density the number given when the mass of a sample of a substance is divided by the volume of the same sample
elemental symbol a symbol assigned to an element based on the name of the element, consisting of one capital letter or a capital letter followed by a lowercase letter
compound formula a representation of the molecule of a compound, consisting of the symbols of the atoms found in the molecule
nucleus the central core of atoms that contains protons, neutrons, and most of the mass of atoms
atomic number of an atom a number equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
mass number of an atom a number equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
isotopes atoms that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
atomic mass unit a unit used to express the relative masses of atoms
atomic weight the mass of an average atom of an element expressed in atomic mass units
molecular weight the relative mass of a molecule expressed in atomic mass units and calculated by adding together atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule
mole the number of particles contained in a sample of element or compound with a mass in grams equal to the atomic weight. 1 mol is equal to 6.022 x 10^23 particles
Created by: AlyRuth