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Chem 116 Exam 1

When ions become surrounded closely by solvent molecules it is... Solvated
Difference between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes in ionic solution E- conduct; NE- don't conduct
Difference between molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations Molecular: all reactants and products Total ionic: all substances dissociated into ions Net ionic: eliminates spectator ions and shows actual chemical change
When dissolved in water an acid produces ___ ions and a base produces ___ ions. Acid: H+ Base: OH-
Strong bases have ___ or ___ in their structure; weak bases have ____ Strong: OH- or O2- Weak: e- pair on N
What are the products from an acid-base reaction? H2O + Salt
Bronsted-Lowry theory says that in an acid-base reaction, an acid ____ a proton and a base ____ a proton. Acid donates Base accepts
Define titration When a known concentration of one solution is used to determine an unknown concentration of another
Define chemical kinetics The study of how fast reactants change into products
Define reaction rate The change in the concentration of reactants (or products) as a function of time
What are the four factors of chemical kinetics? Concentration, physical state, presence of catalysts, and temperature
What would be the reaction rate for the following: 2A + B --> 3C -delta[A]/2deltat + -delta[B]/deltat = delta[C]/3deltat
What is the general form of the rate law? Rate = k[A]^m[B]^n
Does the rate constant change with temperature? Does it change as the reaction proceeds? K does change with temperature; Does not change as reaction proceeds
How can you find the components of the rate law? By experiment!
What is the reaction order of Rate = k[A] First order
What is the reaction order of Rate = k[A]^2 Second order
What is the reaction order of Rate = k Zero order
What are the differences in the integrated rate laws for each reaction order? First: ln Second: inverse Zero: general
What is the time it takes for the reactant concentration to reach 1/2 its initial value defined as? Half-life
The half life of a ____ order reaction is independent of concentration. First
Define collision frequency Collisions per unit time
What is the activation energy? The difference between activated state and reactants, defined in forward and reverse directions. Energy it takes to reach transition state and collide.
Determine the number of possible collisions for the following: a. 2A + 2B b. C +6D c. 5F + 4D a. 4 b. 6 c. 20
As rate increases, what does activation energy do? Decrease
Frequency factor (A) is dependent on what to variables? A = pZ p: orientation probability factor Z: collision frequency
What is a species with a partial bond that is neither reactant or product? transition state
Define molecularity The number of reactant particles in the step
What is the rate determining step? The slow step
Define reaction intermediate Substance formed and used up during the reaction
Three things a valid mechanism must do/have: 1. elementary steps must add to overall balanced equation. 2. must be physically reasonable (generally uni- or bimolecular 3. must correlate with rate law
True or False: Only reactants included up to and including the slow step appear in the overall rate law, nothing beyond this step. True
In a reaction energy diagram, what do the peaks represent? Transition state
Define catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed
Catalyst result in a(n)____ yield, form _____, and require a(n) _____ total activation energy. Catalyst result in a(n) EQUAL yield, form FASTER, and require a LOWER total activation energy.
What is the difference between a homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst? Homogeneous: exist in solution with the reaction Heterogeneous: speeds up reaction in a different phase
What is a globular protein catalyst? Enzyme
What's an example of catalyst in nature? (from class) Chlorine from CFCs speeds breakdown of O3 (Ozone depletion)
Nonmetals are generally ____ bonded while metals are generally ____ bonded. Nonmetal: covalent Metal: ionic
What is the simplest whole number ratio of moles of each element in a compound? Emperical formula
E(a) rev = E(a) fwd + ____ delta H (heat of reaction)
Molarity = Moles solvent/ Liters solution
Molality = Moles solvent/ Kg solute
Difference between average, instantaneous, and initial rate Average: total change in concentration over time Instantaneous: Rate at a particular time Initial: Instantaneous rate when reactants are mixed
The step-wise change that individual molecules undergo during a reaction is Mechanism
What are individual simplest steps which show which molecules collide with what? Elementary Reactions
Define unimolecular One molecule or ion collides with an under active molecule and gives products of the elementary reaction (like nucleus disentegrating and going radioactive)
Define bimolecular Two molecules collide and give the products of the elementary reaction
Rate of unimolecular reaction k[A]
rate of bimolecular reaction k[A]^2 k[A][B]
Is a reversible reaction fast or slow? Fast. Always.
To react, must molecules collide or have energy to overcome mutual repulsion? Both!
If you mix 2M NaCl adn 2M HCl, what will be the molarity of the resulting concentration? 1M; Double the volume, half the concentration
Given the rate law, by what factor does the rate change if each of the following occurs? Rate = k[A]^2[B] 1. [A] is tripled 2. [A] and [B] are doubled 3. [B] is halved 1. increase by 9 2. increase by 8 3. decrease by 1/2
*Reminder: Review question 4 from recitation 4 Just do it
What is the difference between the differential and integrated rate law? Differential: rate as a function of concentration Integrated: Concentration as a function of time
What was the purpose of the calibration plot in the Iron Equilibrium lab to determine the concentration of the unknown
Created by: jkmccord11