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Chem 177

Test 1

C Carbon
F Fluorine
H Hydrogen
I Iodine
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
P Phosphorus
S Sulfur
Al Aluminum
Br Bromine
Ca Calcium
Cl Chlorine
He Helium
Li Lithium
Mg Magnesium
Si Silicon
Cu Copper
Fe Iron
Pb Lead
Hg Mercury
K Potassium
Ag Silver
Na Sodium
Sn Tin
homogeneous mixture, variable composition (salt in water) solutions
Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc Physical changes
Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc Chemical changes
separating liquid from solids differences in solubility filtration
differences in ability to form gases distillation
differences in ability to adhere to surfaces chromatography
proximity of measurement to true value of quantity accuracy
proximity of several measurements to each other precision
Law of Conservation of Matter The total mass of substances present at the end of a chemical process is the same as the mass of substances present before the process took place
Law of Constant Composition the elemental composition of a pure substance does not vary
Law of Multiple Proportions two elements form more than one compound
Protons are the same as: neutrons or electrons? Electrons
Isotopes Same number of protons, different number of neutrons
Periods Horizontal rows
Groups Vertical columns
atomic number= number of protons
average atomic mass: average atomic mass = Σ (abundance ∙ atomic mass) for each isotope
ionic bond: metal+nonmetal, electron transfer
covalent bond: nonmetals, electron pair sharing
metallic bond: metals, electron band sharing
Diatomic molecules Occur naturally as molecules containing two atoms (H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Be2, I2
Group 1A Alkali Metals
Group 7A Halogens
H20 water
NH3 ammonia
CH4 methane
molecular weight sum of all atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule, amu
formula weight sum of attomic weights for all the atoms in a chemical formula, amu
Percent composition (number of atoms)(atomic weight)/(FW of compound) *100
cations positive, formed on left side, lose
anions negative, formed on right side, gain
Group 2A alkaline earth metals
Group 6A chalcogens
Na2S sodium sulfide
CaO Calcium oxide
BaCl2 barium chloride
CaF2 calcium fluoride
K2O potassium oxide
per-ate 4 oxygens
ate 3 oxygens
-ic acid acid of ate anion
-ous acid acid of ite anion
HCl hydrochloric acid
HNO3 nitric acid
H2SO4 sulfuric acid
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
HClO3 chloric acid
HCL04 perchloric acid
NH4+ ammonium
CO32- carbonate
NO3- nitrate
PO43- phosphate
SO32- sulfite
ClO3- chlorate
ClO4- perchlorate
formula weight (amu) is same number as molar mass (g/mol)
polyatomic ion hydroxide, OH-,
CH3COO− acetate
C6H5COO− Benzoate
HCO3- bicarbonate
CO32- carbonate
CN- cyanide
OH- hydroxide
NO3- nitrate
PO43- phosphate
SO42- sulfate
NH4+ ammonium
H3O+ hyrdonium
Hg22+ Mercury (I)
C7H7+ Tropylium
H- hydride
ClO4- perchlorate
ClO3- Chlorate
ClO2- Chlorite
CN- Cyanide
ClO- Hypochlorite
NO3- Nitrate
NO2- Nitrite
NH4+ Ammonium
H3O+ Hydronium
Hg22+ Mercury (I)
Created by: 1177770046