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chapter 1

What are two components to an atom their components and unit of atom 1.nucleus:protons and neutron=atom =mass 2.electron cloud:electrons= atom volume
Elements in same row and column have same? Row(period): size Column(group): electronic and chemical properties
Orbitals bw first row vs Second row first: one orbital, shell 1s second: filled first shell of e-, 4 orbitals to accept add of e-. one 2s orbital and three 2p orbital
Group number represents number of? valence e-
different e-: p: n: e: ions p:elements n: isotopes
Define isomer different molecules have same molecular formula
S orbital size, number of orbitals and e- fit sphere, 1, 2e-
P orbital size, number of orbitals and e- fit dumnbell,3, 6e-
d orbital size, number of orbitals and e- fit 4 leaf clover, 5, 10 e-
ionic vs covalent bodning i: transfer e- bw differing electronegative elements c: sharing e- bw 2 nuclei
second row bonding rules 1-3 group elements= corresponding bonds 4+ group elements= octet
Fish hook bw double headed arrows fish: moving one e-, arrow= movment of e-
method to find amount of bonds in a element 1=3 groups correspondence, 4+ group want octet so 8- valence e-
method of lone pairs valence e- - 4
Frormal charge= # ve- -# of owned atoms
owned atoms= # of unshared e- + 1/2(shared e-)
shared vs unshared e- un: # of e- in a lone pair, shared: bonded e-
Longest/shortest element in bond length: longest: Fr, shortest: He Fr, shortest: He
Bond angle determine shape around any atom bonded to 2 other atoms
geometry of atom determined by #of groups (atoms or lone pair)
groups definition according to bond angle atoms or lone pair
Second row arrangements geometry and bond angle for 2,3,4 groups 2:linear, 180degrees, 3: trigonal planar, 120d, 4: tetrahedral, 109.5d
Bond Lenth average distance bw center of two bonded nuclei in angstroms (pm)
Bond length conversion across column BL increase down column as atom size increases
Bond length conversion across row BL decrease across row as atom size decreases
Constitutional isomer same molecular formula but different dot connects
Third row exceptions of octet rule B= 6e-, Be= 4e-, highly reactive
resonance two lewis structure having same atomic placing but differ e- arrangement
double head arrow in resonance seperate r structures
Resonance rules change multiple bond and nonbonded e-, NOT atom placement and single bonds, same # of unpaired e-, valid l structures
polar one polar bond or two or more bond dipoles that reinforce
nonpolar no polar bond or two or more bond dipoles that cancel bc of equal and opposite in direction
Created by: salihim



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