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Exam 1*

Things good to know

7 strong acids HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3 (nitric acid), H2SO4 sulfuric acid, HClO3 chloric acid, HClO4 perchloric acid
Group IA metal cations or NH4+ SOLUBLE. No exceptions.
NO3− (nitrate), ClO4− (perchlorate), ClO3- (chlorate), C2H3O2- (acetate) or HCO3- (bicarbonate) anions SOLUBLE. No exceptions.
Cl− (chloride), Br− (bromide), CN- (cyanide), and I− (iodide) anions SOLUBLE except when combined with Ag+, Hg22+, and Pb+2 cations.
SO42- (sulfate) and SO32- (sulfite) anions SOLUBLE except when combined with Ag+, Hg22+, Pb+2, Ca+2, Ba+2 or Sr+2 cations. (Sulfur loves heavier group 2A metals)
Most Ionic compounds that contain PO43- (phosphate), CO32- (carbonate), OH- (hydroxide), S2- (sulfide), O2- (oxide), CrO42- (chromate) and F- (fluoride) anions INSOLUBLE (except when combined with Group IA or NH4+ cations)
Exception - Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, and Sr(OH)2 are considered soluble. Group IA and heavier Group IIA oxides react with water, to form the corresponding hydroxide which is soluble. Na2O(s) + H2O → 2 NaOH(aq) CaO(s) + H2O → Ca(OH)2(aq)
Boiling point/Freezing point Elevation/depression ∆T= i(K_b)(molality_solute)
Weight % Wt %= (Kg solute)/ (Kg solution, which also includes the solute, or Kg total)
Osmotic pressure π= iMRT i= disassociation M= Molality T= K˚ R= constant
To turn 25˚ C into K˚ Just add 273.15
Vapor pressure P= iX(P_0) i= disassociation X= mole fraction of what you want P_0= pure vapor pressure of substance
Mole Fraction X= #mole solute/ (total moles or moles solution, which also means total)
Formula for acetate CH3COO, there is an extra H when it is acidic
Solubility of Gas in relation to pressure C(concentration in terms of Molarity)= (K_H)(P_partial pressure) - note that partial pressure is related to mole fraction
Relation ship of solution temp, solubility, & ∆H of dissolving a solid** solute Watch the equilibrium
What happens to the solubility of a gas as temp goes up? It decreases. Can this also be explained by ∆H and the equilibrium? It should be explained by it. Remember there must be ∆H in the equilibrium because the gas goes from no interaction, as a gas, to interacting with liquid, as a liquid.
Created by: hlatif