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# Physics P2 GCSE

### Physics P2 Cards

In a distance-time graph, the gradient means what? The Speed
Speed = What? (Equation) Speed = Distance / Time
Velocity is ____ in a given ______ Velocity is SPEED in a given DIRECTION.
On a Velocity-Time graph, what does the gradient show? Acceleration OR Deceleration
If the slope is negative, it is ___celeration DECELERATION
The area 'under' a distance-time graph is what? The Distance traveled.
Objects always exert a _____ and ______ force on each other. Objects always exert a EQUAL and OPPOSITE force on each other.
Resultant Force = ?? R.F = Mass x Acceleration
A car travelling at a steady speed has a resultant force of what? 0 - The forces (Driving forces are equal and opposite to the friction forces)
When an object is in freefall, what is the resultant force? Gravity?
What is the acceleration due to gravity? About 10m/s^2 (Actually 9.81m/s^2)
What is terminal velocity? When the forces on an object in freefall are balanced (Friction Forces = Gravity)
Work Done = ? Work Done = Force x Distance Moved in Direction of Force.
What is Elastic Potential Energy? It is energy stored when an elastic object is squashed or stretched.
Kinetic Energy = ? 1/2(Mass x Speed^2)
Momentum = ? Momentum = MASS X VELOCITY (Measured in Kg/(m/s)
When 2 objects collied what happens to the momentum? It is conserved.
Velocity and Momentum have what? A Size and a Direction
Force = ? Force = Change in Momentum / Time Taken For Change (This is why we have an airbag - it increases the time taken for change, so the force is less so there is less injury)
When 2 insulating materials are rubbed together what happens? Electrons are Rubbed off one material and deposited on another.
When charge flows through a conductor what happens? It makes it have a current.
Electric Current is what? Electric Current is the rate of flow of charge.
Why are metals good conductors? They have lots of free electrons.
A conductor can only hold charge when? When its isolated from the ground(Earthed) because if it was earthed, the electrons would go there, making the conductor non-conducting.
How does a old photocopier work? (2 Parts) (6 Different Points) - A Copying plate is given a charge - The image to be photocopied is projected onto the Charged plate - When the light hits the image, where this image is reflected onto the plate, the charge dissipates from here.
Part 2 -Toner is added, which sticks to the charged parts of the plate. - Paper is then added, and the toner rubs off onto the paper. - The paper is then heated to 'stick' it finally.
How does an electrostatic paint sprayer work? The nozzle of the sprayer is charged, making the paint positive. This makes the droplets repel from each other, also the car is charged oppositely, so the paint is attracted to the car, and the droplets should be evenly spread out.
How are ammeters positioned in relation to the component? In SERIES
How is a voltmeter used? In PARALLEL
What is resistance measured in? Ohms
With increased brightness, the resistance of a LDR does what? The resistance decreases.
What happens in a series circuit? The Current is equal across the entire circuit, but the p.d. can change over different components (Low Resistance = Higher P.D.
What happens in a parallel circuit? The P.D. across each component is the same. BUT due to junctions in the circuitry, the current can change, depending on the resistance of the component.(Big Resistance = Low Current
Whats the frequency of UK Mains electricity? 50 Hz (50 cycles a second)
Which wire is attached to a fuse inside a plug? The Live Wire
Power = ? Energy transformed / Time
Power is measured in what? Watts
What is a coulomb? A coulomb is the amount of electric charge transported in one second through a current of 1 amp
Whats the mass of an electron? Negligible
What makes an isotope? Atoms of the same element can also have a different number of neutrons, in which case it is an isotope.
What is an alpha particle? 2 Protons and 2 Neutrons.
What is a beta particle? It is an electron.
What is background radiation? It is Radiation that is present all of the time - such as from granite (Radon) or from cosmic rays.
What is gamma radiation? It is an electromagnetic wave, so no change to the overall atomic mass or mass number.
What are 2 common nuclear fuels? Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239
How does fission work? An atom of nuclear 'fuel' must absorb a neutron, which makes it split into 2 smaller atoms and release 2-3 more neutrons, which carry on the fission reaction.
What are the problems with fusion? The particles try to avoid each other due to like charges. - The temperatures produced are too hot for conventional chambers - it has to be done in a Electromagnetic field.
Where is nuclear fusion seen naturally? In Stars.
Created by: DHSBBen