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Synthesis of carbohydrates and lipids

Gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose from pyruvate, lactate, amino acids and CAC intermediates and glycerol and Propionyl CoA.
Gluconeogenis occurs ONLY when there is an excess of energy
Regulation only one of either gluconeogenesis or glycolysis occurs at one given time
Amt of glucose is usually fairly constant
Glucose stores not enough for one day
Liver is the metabolic centre. Contains glycogen stores and gluconeogenesis occurs here.
G6Pase only foind in liver cells. (removes phosphate group and leaves glucose to be exported out of the liver.
Synth glucose from pyruvate [1] Pyruvate (3C) --> oxaloacetate (4C) PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE 1ATP and CO2 required, carries a prosthetic group (biotin)
Malate shuffle to produce NADH (cytosol) and because there is no transporter for oxaloacetate out of mitochondria MALATE DEHYDROGENASE
Glucose from pyruvate [1] Oxaloacetate <--> phosphoenolpyruvate PEP CARBOXYKINASE release of CO2; 1GTP required
Pyruvate carboxylase on/off ON high energy. OFF low energy
HIGH Acetyl-CoA (control mechanism) turns pyruvate carboxylase ON. turns pyruvate dehydrogenase OFF.
Pyruvate carboxylase is an anaplerotic enzyme. has the ability to top up levels of critical intermediates.
Acetyl CoA control decides whether oxaloacetate proceeds to GNG or CAC
HIGH ATP, NADH or Acetyl CoA oxaloacetate --> GNG
LOW ATP oxaloacetate --> CAC
Glucose from pyruvate [2] Fructose 1,6 Biphosphate --> Fructose 6 Phosphate FRUCTOSE 16 BIPHOSPHATASE. futile cycle: product is formed but can reverse and form reactant again.
glucose from pyruvate [3] Glucose 6 Phosphate --> Glucose GLUCOSE 6 PHOSPHATASE
Regulatory enzymes Pyruvate carboxylase, fructose 16 biphosphatase(turned on by high energy conditions and by hormonal control)
Glucose from lactate lactate is sent to liver, converted to glucose and sent back to the muscles. LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (lactate --> pyruvate in liver)
synthesis of GLYCOGEN Glycogen synthase...
Glycogen synthase utilizes UDP-glucose as one substrate and the non-reducing end of glycogen as another. The activation of glucose to be used for glycogen synthesis is carried out by the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
Glycogen is highly branched to allow for fast mobilisation
Glycogen is synthesized at the non-reducing end. breakdown is also from the non-reducing end
Glycogenin begins synthesis. synthesises at least a tetrasaccharide then glycogen synthase takes over.
SDL4 check it
Biosynthesis of lipods Acetyl CoA -> Malonyl CoA -> FAs
Acetyl CoA + CO2 using Acetyl CoA carboxylase Malonyl CoA
Acetyl CoA has biotin carrier that acts as a cofactor to carry CO2
NADPH reducing power to allow reaction
Sources of Acetyl CoA from carbs or protein breakdown THEREFORE excess carbs and proteins converted to fat
Synthesis of FA occus in the cytosol, therefore Acetyl CoA needs to be transported via citrate to cytosol
Malonyl CoA inhibit carnatine transporters so as to prevent FA degradation
Ketone bodies provide CoA that can be used as energy but are not preferred over glucose
Starvation check yellow book
Created by: nyna