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Chemistry C2 GCSE

Chemistry Unit 2 GCSE Higher Cards!

Charge of a Proton? +1
What is a negative ion? An anion
What is a positive ion? A cation
2 Giant Covalent structures? Silicon Dioxide and Diamond
Giant covalent structures are ______ and ______ Giant covalent structures are REGULAR and LARGE
Metals could be considered a ______ of metal ____. Metals could be considered a LATTICE of metal ATOMS.
What 'holds' a metallicaly bonded structure together? Strong intermolecular forces between the poisitivly charged ions and the negative 'sea' of electrons
What is the definition for the 'sea' of electrons? Delocalised Electrons
Ionic substances have a ___ melting point because of ____ forces between ______ ______ _____. Ionic substances have a HIGH melting point because of STRONG forces between OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS.
Ionic solutions are ______. Ionic solutions are CONDUCTIVE. (Will carry electricity)
Negativly charged ions go to the _____? They go to the ANODE.
Positivly charged ions go to the ____? They go to the CATHODE.
What is Oxidation/Reduction? (Remember Mr. Penrose) It is Loss/Gaining of Electrons - OILRIG or LEO the lion says GER.
Will a : - ionic SOLID conduct electricity? - Molten ionic compound conduct electricty? - Ionic compound in solution conduct electricty? - No (Fixed Ions) - Yes (Free Electrons) - Yes
The forces that hold together covalent bonds are equally as strong in ____ compounds as in _____ compounds. The forces that hold together covalent bonds are equally as strong in COVALENT compounds as in IONIC compounds.
The bonds between each different molecule in a covalent compound are very weak. This is called what? Having weak inter-molecular forces.
3 Special properties of diamond? It is very hard, has high melting/boiling points and is very chemically unreactive
____ number - ____ number = Neutron number MASS number - ATOMIC number = Neutron number
An isotope has differing amounts of what? Neutrons
Different amounts on Neutrons can make it what? Radioactive (Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239, P2 Revision Baby!)
Empirical formula when 9g of Al reacts with 35.5g of Cl? AlCl3
How is yield calculated? Useful Product / Maximum Possible (x100 for %age)
How is atom economy calculated? Useful Relative formula Mass/ Total Relative formula Mass
What's the name of a reaction that could go 'Both Ways'? A Reversible Reaction
Where is nitrogen and Hydrogen obtained from for the Haber Process? The Air, and Methane respectively.
What type of catalyst is used in the Haber Process? an Iron One
What Pressure and What temperature is used in the Haber Process? 200 Atms and 450C
How is ammonia removed from the resulting mixture? the gases are cooled - and Ammonia turns into a liquid.
What happens to the remaining gases? They are returned into the system (recycled)
Whats the equation of the Haber Process? N2 +3H2 <-> 2NH3
3 ways collison theory can be used? (By doing this ____ - the particles do this - which makes More product/a faster reaction) - Increased temperature = Faster particles = More collisions -Surface Area = More area for collisions to happen -Increased Pressure (Gases) / Concentration (Liquids)
What does an exothermic reaction do? Give out heat to the surroundings.
What does the electrolysis of brine produce? - Hydrogen (At the positive electrode) - Chlorine (At the Negative Electrode) - This leaves behind Sodium (Na+ and Hydroxide ions(from the water)) to produce Sodium Hydroxide - A Strong Alkali
A pH of 8-14 makes a substance what? Alkaline
What is a base? A Substance that will neutralise an acid.
Acid + Metal = ? Salt + Hydrogen (With any element above Hydrogen in the reactivity series) (The most reactive elements are too dangerous to be done (E.g. Potassium + Caesium)
Acid + Base = ? Salt + Water (Bases are metal oxides or metal hydroxides)
Acid + Alkali = ? Soluble Salt + Water
How is an insoluble salt made? Mix two soluble salts that contain the correct ions - Such as LEAD Nitrate and Potassium IODIDE - To form LEAD IODIDE - A precipitate that could be filtered and Dried
Ammonia Solution can be used to make what? Ammonia Nitrate - A Fertilizer
Created by: DHSBBen