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Chemistry Chapter 2

General Chemistry

law of conservation of mass the total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction
law of definite proportions all samples have the same composition or all samples have the same proportions, by mass of all the elements present.
law of multiple proportions when two or more different compounds of the same two elements are compared, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the second element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
Dalton's Atomic Theory Proposed in 1803 to explain the law of conservation of mass, law of definite proportions, and law of multiple proportions
isotopes atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom of a given element
mass number is an integral number that is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom.
nomenclature is the method for naming compounds and writing formulas for compounds
molecular formula gives the number of each kind of atom in a molecule
empirical formula simply gives the (whole number) ratio of atoms of elements in a compound
cation has a positive charge from loss of electrons
anion has a negative charge from gain of electrons
ionic compound oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other such that the compound has no net charge
formula unit the simplest collection of cations and anions that represents an electrically neutral unit
polyatomic ion a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
acids -taste sour if diluted with enough water to be tasted safely -react with metals to produce ionic compounds and hydrogen gas -also react with bases, thus losing their acidic properties
Hydrates an ionic compound in which the formula unit includes a fixed number of water molecules associated with cations and anions
bases -taste bitter if diluted with enough water -feel slippery or soapy on the skin -turns color from red to blue -reacts with acids, thus losing their basic properties
Arrhenius acid is a compound that ionizes in water to form a solution H+ ions and anions
Arrhenius base is a compound that ionizes in water to form solutions of OH- and cations
Neutralization the process of an acid reacting with base to form water and a salt
salt the combination of the cation from a base and the anion from the acid
Hydrocarbons molecules that contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms
Alkanes are saturated (have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible for the number of carbon atoms)
Isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
organic chemistry the study of carbon and its compounds
functional group an atom or group of atoms attached to the hydrocarbon chain, which confers particular physical and/or chemical properties upon the compound
Alcohol functional group is a hydroxyl group attached to the carbon chain
Carboxylic acids have a caboxyl group attached to the carbon chain. Acidic
atomic mass given on the periodic table and is the weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element.
Created by: khczopek