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Chemistry Chapter 1

General Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Data measurements
unit conversion method based on two general concepts: -multiplying a quantity by one does not change the quantity -the same quantity (or unit) in both numerator and denominator of a fraction will cancel.
significant figures all known digits, plus the first uncertain digit
SI units mass: kilogram length: meter area:meter^2 volume: meter^3 temperature: Kelvin time: seconds
mass the quantity of matter in an object; weight is a force
SI International System of Units
heterogenous mixture varies in composition an/or properties from one part of the mixture to another. Examples: adhesive tape, CD, pen
homogeneous mixture has the same composition throughout, though the composition of different homogeneous mixtures may vary.
mixture does not have a fixed composition
theory the explanation of a law
scientific law a (usually) mathematical description of "here's what will happen".
compound made up of two or more elements in fixed proportions, and can be broken into simpler substances
element cannot be broken down into other simpler substances by chemical reactions
substance has a definite or fixed composition that does not vary from one sample to the other
hypothesis a tentative explanation of the facts and observations
chemical change (chemical reaction) the matter undergoes a change in composition example: burning gasoline
physical change no change in composition example:evaporation
molecules larger units in which two or more atoms are joined together
atoms the smallest distinctive units in a sample of matter
chemical property displayed by a sample of matter as it undergoes a change in composition
physical property displayed by a sample of matter without undergoing any change in the composition of the matter
matter is anything that has mass and occupies space
chemistry the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and of changes that occur in matter
composition the types of atoms and their relative proportions in a sample of matter
Created by: khczopek