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SVS severn vale docshort

ACID contains H+ ions
ACTIVATION ENERGY the minimum amount of energy required for a successful reaction to happen
ADDITIVE substances added to food to enhance flavour, colour, shelf- life
ALKALI soluble base
ALLOY mixtures of metals or mixtures of metal with a non-metal (e.g. Steel is Iron & Carbon)
ANHYDROUS water is absent in the crystal product (e.g anhydrous Copper Sulphate is white)
ANODE positive electrode. Negative ions attracted to it
AQUEOUS SOLUTION a solution that contains water as the solvent
ATOMIC NUMBER number of protons or electrons an element has
BASE substance that will neutralise an acid
BAUXITE an ore that contains Aluminium
BRINE Aqueous solution of salt (Sodium Chloride) and water
CATALYST speeds up reaction, lowers activation energy, usually a transition metal
CATHODE negative electrode in electrolysis. Positive ions attracted to it
CHROMATOGRAPHY a method for separating different mixtures of chemicals based on their properties (e.g. solubility)
CLOSED SYSTEM where reactants or products cannot escape
COLLISION THEORY describes how particles behave in a reaction
CONCENTRATION the ‘amount’ of substance
CORROSION electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material
COVALENT electrons are shared between non-metals
CRYOLITE lowers the melting point of Aluminium Oxide
DECOMPOSE break down into simpler compounds or elements
DELOCALISED where electrons are free to move within structure, allows a charge to be carried
DIAMOND Giant covalent – made from C atoms
DUCTILE able to be drawn into thin wires
ELECTROLYSIS splitting IONIC compounds into ions using electricity
ELECTROLYTE the solution electrolysis is carried out in
ELECTRON orbits nucleus, has negative charge
ELECTRON SHELL electrons fill shells in the sequence 2,8,8,2.
ELECTROPLATING Coat (a metal object) by electrolytic deposition with another metal
ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION attraction between ions with opposite charges
EMPIRICAL FORMULA simplest ratio of atoms in a compound
ENDOTHERMIC a reaction which takes in heat energy from its surroundings
ENZYME a biological catalyst
EQUILIBRIUM A ‘balance’ in a reversible reaction between reactants and products
EXOTHERMIC a reaction which releases heat energy
FORMULA MASS atomic masses added together
FULLERENES A form of carbon having a large spheroidal molecule consisting of a hollow cage of atoms
GRAPHITE Giant covalent. Made of C atoms. Layers can slide over each other. Has delocalised electrons
HYDRATED when water is present in the crystal (e.g. Hydrated Copper Sulphate is Blue)
HYDROXIDE ions that make a substance alkali
INDICATOR changes colour according to the pH of the solution
INSOLUBLE will not dissolve in water
INTERMOLECULAR FORCE weak force between simple molecules
ION an atom that has a charge (because it has lost or gained an electron)
IONIC electrons are lost or gained between metal and non-metal atoms
ISOTOPE atom of same element with different numbers of neutrons
LATTICE a 3-D structure of bonds
MACROMOLECULE a large molecular structure (e.g giant covalent)
MALLEABLE metal atoms can slide past each other so metals can be shaped
MASS (Mr) the formula mass of a compound
MASS SPECTROMETRY detects the mass or charge of chemicals in a substance
MOLE formula mass of a compound or atomic mass of an atom
MOLECULAR ION PEAK the peak in a spectrum corresponding to the mass of the molecular weight of the compound
MOLTEN liquefied by heat- ions are free to move
MONOMER an alkene unit used to form polymers
NANOTECHNOLOGY very very small scale (10-9)
NEUTRALISATION reaction when an acid reacts completely with a base
NITRATES salts formed by the reation of Nitric Acid with a base
NUCLEUS centre of the atom – contains protons and neutrons
NEUTRON has no charge and a mass of 1. Found in the nucleus
OXIDATION the loss of electrons
pH a measure of the concentration of Hydrogen ions
PHOTOSYNTHESIS chemical reaction that produces glucose and oxygen from water carbon dioxide and light energy
POLYMER a long chain of single bond repeating monomer units
PRECIPITATE when you get a solid formed in solution
PRODUCT what is made in a chemical reaction (on right hand side of equation)
PROTON has a positive charge. Found in the nucleus. Mass of 1
REACTANT the reacting chemicals in a reaction (on left side of equation)
REACTION RATE how fast the reaction happens
REDOX a reaction where oxidation and reduction happen
REDUCTION the gain of electrons
REVERSIBLE reaction can go forwards and backwards (double arrows)
RESPIRATION chemical reaction that produces carbon dioxide and water from glucose and oxygen (reverse of photosynthesis)
RETENTION TIME the amount of time taken from the injection of a sample into a Gas Chromatography machine to the recording of the maximum peak in the sample
REVERSIBLE REACTION where the reactants make the products and products can re-form the reactants
SOLUBLE dissolves in water
SOLUTE substance being dissolved
SOLUTION mixture of solvent and solute
SULFATES salts formed when Sulfuric Acid reacts with a base
SUSTAINABLE using resources without affecting the ability of people in the future to use those resources
THERMAL DECOMPOSITION breaking down into simpler compounds using heat
THERMOSOFTENING polymers that can be re-heated and re-moulded
THERMOSETTING once set, these polymers cannot be remoulded
TRANSITION METALS middle block of metals in the Periodic Table
YIELD the amount of product you make in a reaction
Created by: docshort