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Stack #82035

GENETICS the scietific study of genes/inheritance.
DOMINANT trait that shows up on an organism
RECESSIVE trait that is hidden and weaker, an allele that is covered up when a dominant allele is present. (Aa, Dd, Bb) recessive alleles-lower case letters
HOMOZYGOUS possesing identical alleles for a trait
HETEROZYGOUS an organism that has 2 different alleles for a trait
GENOTYPE an organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations
PHENOTYPE organisms physical apperance or visable traits
CO-DOMINANCE both alleles appear equally in the phenotype
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE a condition tht results when genes produce a trait somewhere in between the traits of the parents.
MUTATION a change in DNA or chromosomes
NATURE the actual inheritence of a gene
NURTURE what you have to be taught
PEDIGREE a chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
DOMINANT PEDIGREE an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
RECESSIVE PEDIGREE an alllele that is masked when a dominant allele is present--- the weaker gene that is hidden when a dominant gene is present
CARRIER an individual that carries one gene for a recessive trait. A carrier does not express that trait, but when mated with another can produce offspring that do.
XX x-comes from mom x-comes from dad GIRL
XY X-comes from mom y-comes from dad boy
OFFSPRING Used to refer to non-human organisms resulting from reproduction (in humans = children)
CYSTIC FIBROSIS hereditary disease - secretion of excesssively viscous mucus by exocrine glands white children
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION mitosis in the absence of gametes; the offspring are identical to the parent
MARFAN SYNDROME Genetic disease that results from a change in a single gene on chromosome 15. The body's connective tissue is affected.
TAY-SACHS DISEASE effects the nervous system, recessive inherited disease in which a baby's brain cells cannot metabolize gangliosides, a type of lipid, because a crucial enzyme is disfunctional
SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA change in shape of red blood cells, recessive disease caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin of red blood cells
DNA FINGERPRINTING USES (3 WAYS) Diagnosis of Inherited Disorders Developing Cures for Inherited Disorders link suspects to biological evidence - blood or semen stains, hair, or items of clothing - found at the scene of a crime.
DISADVANTAGES OF GENETIC DISEASE TESTING (3 TRADE OFFS) Could be denied medical coverage, reproductiion decisions, and test for something that has no cure
WHY ARE FRUIT FLIES CHOSEN TO STUDY GENETICS they breed fast (2 weeks) and only have 4 pairs of chromosomes
Punnett square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of allelles that can result from a genetic cross
Punnett square is used for what type of reproduction ) all of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross 2)Determines the probability of a particular outcome
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION reproduction involving the union of gametes
Offspring of sexual reproduction receive genetic material from ___ parent(s) 2
Offspring of asexual reproduction receive genetic material from ___ parent(s) 1
Most human cells have ___ copies of each chromosome 2
List 3 organisms that reproduce sexually humans, ferrets, reptiles
Single celled organisms usually reproduce asexually, by dividing and producing two identical copies of themselves.
Multicellular organisms reproduce Sexually
Place in order from smallest to largest DNA, Chromosomes, nucleus, cell
Gregor Mendel father of modern genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of traits follows particular laws, which were later named after him.
What is fertilization and in what type of reproduction does occur? the combining of an egg and a sperm to create a new individual
Traits can be determine by what 2 things? loci: inferring mode of inheritance and estimating penetrance.
Created by: Sue L