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CHEM 177-Test One

Composition the kinds of atoms the matter contains
Atoms the almost infinitesimally small building blocks of matter
Property any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and to distinguish it from other types
Matter the physical material of the universe; it is anything that has mass and occupies space
States of Matter -Solid -Liquid -Gas
Molecules two or more atoms are joined together in specific shapes
Structure the arrangement of atoms
Solid has both definite shape and a definite volume
Liquid has a distinct volume independent of its container but has not specific shape
Gas/Vapor no fixed volume or shape
Mixtures combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity
Compounds substances composed of two or more elements
Pure Substance is matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample
Physical Properties can be observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance
Law of Constant Composition/Definite Proportions the observation that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same
Solutions a mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture
Elements a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
Chemical Properties describe the way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances
Physical Change changes that occur with no change in chemical composition
Extensive Properties a property that depends on the amount of material considered; for example, mass or volume
Intensive Properties a property that is independent of the amount of material considered; for example, density
Changes of State transformations of matter from one state to a different one, for example, from a gas to a liquid
Chemical Change/Chemical Reaction processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances
C Carbon
F Fluorine
H Hydrogen
I Iodine
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
P Phosphorus
S Sulfur
Al Aluminum
Br Bromine
Ca Calcium
Cl Chlorine
He Helium
Li Lithium
Mg Magnesium
Si Silicon
Cu Copper
Fe Iron
Pb Lead
Hg Mercury
K Potassium
Ag Silver
Na Sodium
Sn Tin
Significant Figures the digits that indicate the precision with which a measurement is made; all digits of a measured quantity are significant, including the last digit, which is uncertain
Precision the closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement
Metric System a system of measurement used in science and in most countries. The meter and the gram are example of metric units
Mass a measure of the amount of material in an object. It measures the resistance of an object to be moved. In SI units, mass is measured in kilograms
Kelvin Scale the absolute temperature scale; the SI unit for temperature is the Kelvin. Zero on the Kelvin scale corresponds to -273.15 C; therefore, K = C + 273.15
Accuracy a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value
SI Units the preferred metric units for use in science
Celsius Scale a temperature scale on which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees at sea level
Density the ratio of an object's mass to its volume
Dimensional Analysis a method of problem solving in which units are carried through all calculations. Dimensional analysis ensures that the final answer of a calculation has the desired units
Conversion Factor a ratio relating the same quantity in two systems of units that is used to convert the units of measurement
Created by: kmhyden