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Hair dye

Chemistry Project

QuestionAnswer
The predominant proteins in hair are from the family of keratins, the same family of proteins that make your fingernails. "The Chemistry of Hair Highlights." Science Fair Project Ideas, Answers, & Tools. Science Buddies, 13 Mar. 2007. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Chem_p020.shtml?fave=no>.
If the natural hair color is darker than a medium blonde, the most successful way to lighten the hair is using hydrogen peroxide and an ammonia-based hair lightener. "The Chemistry of Hair Highlights." Science Fair Project Ideas, Answers, & Tools. Science Buddies, 13 Mar. 2007. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Chem_p020.shtml?fave=no>.
Many people in the United States and Europe use hair dyes. It is estimated that more than one-third of women over age 18 and about 10 percent of men over age 40 use some type of hair dye "Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute." Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/hair-dyes>.
Permanent hair dyes make up 80% of currently marketed products "Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute." Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/hair-dyes>.
There is over 5,000 different kinds of chemicals in hair dye products "Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute." Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/hair-dyes>.
Some of them are known as carcinogenic "Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute." Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/hair-dyes>.
Since so many people use hair dyes, scientists question whether or not they give a higher risk of being cancerous "Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute." Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/hair-dyes>.
Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_hair_color>.
More melanin means the hair will be darker "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_hair_color>.
Particular hair colors are associated with ethnic groups. The shades of human hair color are assessed using the Fischer–Saller scale. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w
Fischer–Saller scale, named after Eugen Fischer and Karl Saller, is used in physical anthropology and medicine to determine the shades of hair color. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w
The scale uses the following designations: A (light blond), B to E (blond), F to L (blond), M to O (dark blond), P to T (brown), U to Y (dark brown/black) and Roman numerals I to IV (red) and V to VI (red blond).[1] "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w
Two types of pigment give hair its color: eumelanin and pheomelanin. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/w
Pheomelanin colors hair red. Eumelanin, which has two subtypes of black or brown, determines the darkness of the hair color "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_hair_color>.
A low concentration of brown eumelanin results in blond hair, whereas a higher concentration of brown eumelanin will color the hair brown. High amounts of black eumelanin result in black hair, while low concentrations give gray hair. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
All humans have some pheomelanin in their hair. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
Pheomelanin is more chemically stable than black eumelanin, but less chemically stable than brown eumelanin, so it breaks down more slowly when oxidized. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
This is why bleach gives darker hair a reddish tinge during the artificial coloring process. As the pheomelanin continues to break down, the hair will gradually become orange, then yellow, and finally white. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
One phenotype (brown/blond) has a dominant brown allele and a recessive blond allele. A person with a brown allele will have brown hair; a person with no brown alleles will be blond. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
Two parents with brown hair can have a blond haired child "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
Black-like hair is the darkest and most common hair color. It has large amounts of eumelanin and is less dense than other hair colors. It can range from soft black to blue-black or jet-black. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
Blond hair can have almost any proportion of pheomelanin and eumelanin, "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
More pheomelanin creates a more golden blond color, and more eumelanin creates an ash blond. "Human Hair Color." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012.
Over fifty million women in the USA use hair coloring products. "Health Risks of Chemical Hair Dyes." Squidoo : Welcome to Squidoo. LLC. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.squidoo.com/hairdyedangers>.
"Natural" hair dye does not contain resorcinol, ammonia or peroxide. They still contain the main chemical PPD but its at least at a lower level. "Health Risks of Chemical Hair Dyes." Squidoo : Welcome to Squidoo. LLC. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://www.squidoo.com/hairdyedangers>.
Created by: McRush143