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science: 8

final exam for Science 8

kinetic molecular theory explanation of the way molecules behave on different circumstances
why do dissolved molecules stay dissolved water molecules bounce against sugar molecules, keeping them afloat
3 states of matter solid,gas,liquid
melting point solid turns to liquid
boiling point liquid turns to gas
increase heat of molecules molecules move faster, more space between them, matter expands, more energy
decrease heat of molecules molecules move slower, less space between them, matter contracts, remove energy
matter anything with mass and volume
solid state of matter with a definite shape and volume
liquid state of matter with no definite shape, but a definite volume
gas state of matter with no definite shape or volume
heating a solid energy is added so molecules vibrate faster, you know because the temperature increases if enough energy is dded the molecules will vibrate fast enough to break the bonds and become liquid
heating a liquid energy is added so molecules flow faster, you know because the temperature increases, if it is hot enough the will move fast enough to become gas
heating a gas energy is added so the molecules "fly" faster, you know because the temperature increases
evaporation molecules from surface of liquid go into the air
vaporization molecules from inside the liquid go into the air
in a phase change energy is still being added but the temperature stays the same because the molecules are changing from one state to another
Mass the amount of matter in an object, stays the same everywhere, measured in kg, best measured with a balance scale
force q push or pull that acts on an object, measured in newtons
weight the amount of force on an object due to gravity, depends on where you are in the universe, measured with a spring scale, measured in newtons
gravity the attractive force between objects with mass, measured in m/s2
the six things force can do to objects start movement, stop movement, change shape, change direction of movement, speed up movement, slow down movement
equal force if equal forces are applied in opposite directions, the object doesn't move
unequal forces if unequal forces are applied in opposite directions, the object will move
density the amount of matter in an object compared to how big it is, more molecules=denser, stays the same all the time except for stage changes
why did the can implode? the outside force was bigger than the inside force (to explode it is reversed)
balance scale uses a known mass to find an unknown mass, like a teeter-totter
what is the gravity on earth? 9.8m/s2
volume stays the same except for stage changes, the amount of space taken up by a substance or object, measured in mL
pressure the amount of force acting over a given area on an object, p= force divided by area
area length X width, the amount of surface space covered by an object
deformation a change of shape without being forced into a smaller volume
compression a decrease in volume produced by a force, pascal= P kilo pascal=kPa, 1000P=1kPa, gas is easy to compress because there is room for them but not much for liquid and solid
desity of water 1g/mL
solid to liquid melting
solid to gas sublimation
liquid to solid freezing
liquid to gas vaporization
gas to liquid condensation
gas to solid deposition
equation pyramid mass over density and volume, mary died violently
equation pyramid weight over mass and gravity, wally made goodies
wave length length of one wave from crest to trough
electromagnetic spectrum radio, micro, infrared, visable light, ultra violet, x-ray (gamma
light a form of electromagnetic energy we can see (visable),travels in straight lines and packets called photons, no mass, measured in manometers (nm)
radio waves sound travel, can't see,safe, used for communication and radio towers, lowest frequency
microwaves type of radio wave, shortest wave length of a radio wave, warms things from inside out, in cell pones and wifi
infrared waves wavelength longer than visable light, but shorter than radio, see in dark, see heat, in remote controls and night vision goggles
visable light humans can see, safe, wavelenght loonger than x-ray, but shorter than infrared, all the colors of the rainbow put together make white light, we know because prisms split white light and 2 more can combine them together again
x-ray wavelength shorter and higher energy frequency than ultraviolet, used in x-rays, see through soft tissue, cause cancer because it is strong enough to go through soft tissue and change DNA, but can't go further
x-ray gamma from supernovas, nuclear bombs, sun, and uranium, highest energy and frequency, shortest wavelength, kills cancer
as we go up the electromagnetic spectrum the frequency (energy) is higher and the wavelength is shorter, lower frequency=less dangerous
prism refracts light, separating colors, 2 more can recombine the colors making white light, water droplets also refract light
why can we see color the light bounces onto a green object and the object absorbs all the colors except for green which it bounces back to our eyes.
blue looks black without light because.. there is no light to reflect off of it
wave model of light explanation of light behavior, pictures light travelling as a wave
refraction bending of a wave as it passes from one material with a density to another with a different density
reflection visable light strikes an object and bounces off
sir issac newton discovered the visable light spectrum
why can you see a candle across a room but you can't read by it? because when you are too far away the light ray cannot reflect off the book and bounce back to our eyes
slope= rise divided by run
Created by: studystack11



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