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Glossary ch.1 (CHEM)

Basic Concepts of Chemistry & Tools of Quantitative Chemistry

The Lowest Possible temperature, equal to -273.15 C, used as the zero point of the Kelvin scale. Absolute Zero
The agreement between the measured quantity and the accepted value. Accuracy
The energy of compression and expansion of spaces between molecules. Acoustic energy
An organic compound that contains an amino group and a Carboxyl group Amino acid
The unit of electric current. Ampere (A)
The smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic chemical properties of that element. Atom
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure on the liquid. Boiling point.
An interaction between two or more atoms that holds them together by reducing the potential energy of their electrons. Bond
A scale defined by the freezing and boiling points of pure water, defined as 0 C and 100 C. Celsius temperature scale
The part of a logarithm to the left of the decimal point Characteristic
An attachment of two or more atoms that holds them together in the form of a molecule or ionic solid or network solid. Chemical bond.
A change that involves the transformation of one or more substances into one or more different substances. Chemical change
The energy stored in chemical compounds. Chemical energy
A written representation of a chemical reaction, showing the reactants and products, their physical states, and the direction in which the reaction proceeds. Chemical equation
A list of the elements in a compound (or polyatomic element) that indicates the number of atoms of each element in the compound (or polyatomic element) Chemical formula
An indication of whether and how readily a material undergoes a chemical change Chemical property
Matter that is composed of two or more kinds of atoms chemically combined in definite proportions. compound
the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution Concentration
A multiplier that relates the desired unit to the starting unit Conversion factor
The ratio of the mass of an object to its volume Density
A general problem-solving approach that uses the dimensions or units of each value to guide one through the calculations Dimensional analysis
the energy due to the motion of electrons in a conductor Electrical energy
The energy due to the separation of electrical charges Electrostatic energy
Matter that is composed of only one kind of atom Element
The difference between the measured quantity and the accepted value Error
Physical properties that depend on the amount of matter present. Extensive properties
Scale defined by the freezing and boiling points of pure water, defined as 32 F and 212 F. Fahrenheit temperature scale
The phase of matter in which a substance has no definite shape and a volume defined only by the size of its container Gas
The energy due to the attraction between masses Gravitational energy
A mixture in which the properties in one region or sample are different from those in another region or sample Heterogeneous mixture
A mixture in which the properties are the same throughout, regardless of the optical resolution used to examine it. Homogeneous Mixture
A compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbon
A tentative explanation or prediction based on experimental observations Hypothesis
Physical properties that do not depend on the amount of matter present intensive properties
An atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons so that it is not electrically neutral Ion
A scale in which the unit is the same size as the Celsius degree but the zero point is the lowest possible temperature Kelvin temperature scale
The SI base unit of mass Kilogram(Kg)
A theory of the behavior of matter at the molecular level Kinetic-molecular theory
The energy of a moving object, dependent on its mass and velocity Kinetic energy
A concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relation that is always the same under the same conditions. Law
The phase of matter in which a substance has no definite shape but a definite volume Liquid
A unit of volume convenient for laboratory use; 1L = 1000cm^3 Liter(L)
Processes and properties on a scale large enough to be observed directly Macroscopic level
The part of a logarithm to the right of the decimal point Mantissa
A measure of the quantity of matter in a body Mass
Anything that has mass and occupies space Matter
The energy due to the motion of macroscopic objects Mechanical energy
The temperature at which the crystal lattice of a solid collapses and solid is converted to liquid. Melting point
An element characterized by a tendency to give up electrons, and by good thermal and electrical conductivity. Metal
The SI base unit of length Meter(m)
A decimal system for recording and reporting scientific measurements, in which all units are expressed as powers of 10times some basic unit. Metric system
A unit of volume equivalent to one thousandth of a liter; 1mL = 1 Cm^3 Milliliter(mL)
Two or more substances combined so that each substance retains its chemical identity Mixture
The smallest unit of a compound that retains the composition and properties of that compound Molecule
The field of science in which structures with dimensions on the order of nanometers are used to carry out specific functions Nanotechnology
Representation of chemical phenomena in terms of atoms and molecules. Also called submicroscopic level. Particulate level
The difference between the measured quantity and the accepted value, expressed as a percentage of the accepted value Percent error
A change that involves only physical properties physical change
properties of a substance that can be observed and measured without changing the composition of the substance Physical properties
The energy that results from an object's position Potential energy
The agreement of repeated measurements of a quantity with one another precision
the force exerted on an object divided by the area over which the force is exerted pressure
A substance formed in a chemical reaction Product
A form of matter that cannot be separated into two different species by any physical technique, and that has a unique set of properties. Pure substance
Non-numerical experimental observations, such as descriptive or comparative data Qualitative information
Numerical experimental data, such as measurements of changes in mass or volume Quantitative information
A starting substance in a chemical reaction Reactant
A process in which substances are changed into other substances by rearrangement, combination, or separation of atoms. Reaction
A way of presenting very large or very small numbers in a compact and consistent from that simplifies calculations. Scientific notation
A uniform system of measurement units in which a single base unit is used for each measured physical quantity; SI is an abbreviation for systeme international d'unites SI
the digits in a measured quantity that are known exactly, plus one digit that is inexact to the extent of +- 1. Significant figures
the phase of matter in which a substance has both definite shape and definite volume Solid
A homogeneous mixture in a single phase Solution
A measure of precision, calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the deviation for each measurement from the average divided by one less than the number of measurements. standard deviation
Representations of chemical phenomena in terms of atoms and molecules;also called particulate level Submicroscopic level
A physical property that determines the direction of heat flow in an object on contact with another object Temperature
A unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them Theory
The energy due to the motion of atoms, molecules, or ions Thermal energy
The smallest repeating unit in a crystal lattice unit cell
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