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Clin Path

What is the maturation sequence of a platelet? PPSC-> Myeloid stem cell-> Megakaryoblast->Megakaryocyte
What is the parent cell of the platelet? Megakaryocyte
What is required to stimulate for PPSC to differentiate into megakaryocytes? TPO- Thrombopoietin
What are the 3 main sources of TPO? liver, endothelial cells and fibroblasts
Describe a megakaryocyte. Large, multinucleated, abundant cytoplasm. Nuclei fuse to resemble a large multilobed nucleus.
Where do megakaryocytes reside most commonly? bone marrow
How many PLTs form from a single megakaryocyte? 1000-5000
What portion of the megakaryocyte break off and enter the bloodstream as PLTs? infoldings
Where are PLTs most commonly stored? Spleen
How long do PLTs survive in circulation in the cat? 1 day
How long do PLTs survive in circulation in the dog? 5-8 days
What is another name for PLT? thrombocyte
What activates a PLT? Insult or injury to the host
What do PLTs lack that would normally classify them as a cell? nucleus
There are more PLTs in the blood than _______ but fewer PLTs than ______. WBCs; RBCs
True or false. PLTs have a greater variety of functions than any of the true blood cells True
Most PLTS are smaller than what other blood cell? RBC
In what species do PLTS stain lighter than other spp? Horses
What color are the granules of a PLT? pink/purple
What shape are PLTs normally? discoid
What type of PLTs are occasionally seen in blood smears and are considered to be more active than smaller PLTs? Giant PLTs
What structure is seen on activated PLTs and makes it easier for PLTs to stick to one another? dendritic processes
What is the range of PLTs seen in dogs? 200,000-500,000
What is the range of PLTs seen in cats? 300,000-700,000
What is the range of PLTs seen overall in all spp? 100,000-800,000
What spp has the lowest of normal concentrations? horses
What spp has the highest of normal concentrations? cattle
What happens to animals if their PLT conc is <10,000-50,000? Spontaneous bleeding
What percentage of bleeding disorders in cats/dogs result from abnormal PLT number? 90%
During a differential count, seeing how many PLTs in a HPF is considered to be adequate? 8-10
If PLT numbers are lower than 8-10 per HPF what should be suspected? Clot
What 3 things should be done if PLT numbers are decreased on a blood film? 1-Check body of smear for clumps 2-Check feathered edge for clumps 3-Check blood tube for clots
In what spp of animal is PLT clumping common in? cats
PLT clumping is the result of _____________ to draw blood. needle stick
What can occur invitro due to low ratio of anticoagulant to blood? PLT clumping
What type of pattern should be used when doing a PLT estimation? Embattlement pattern
What are the 2 methods of PLT estimation? Direct and indirect
What method of PLT estimation involves counting 10 HPFs, then determining the average and finally multiplying by 20,000? direct
What method of PLT estimation is done by counting every PLT then dividing by 100? indirect
What is the primary function of a PLT? maintain vascular integrity
Thromboxane is an example of what? vasocontrictor
What initiates the process of a PLT plug formation? damaged blood vessel
What are the procoagulants secreted by PLTs? Factor XII, Factor XIII, PF1, PF2, PF3, and PF4
What is PF? Platelet factor
What is PDGF? Platelet derived growth factor
What do PLTs secrete to help repair damaged vessels? PDGF
What PLT secretion stimulates fibroblasts and smooth muscle to multiply and repair damaged vessels? PDGF
What process stimulates the secretion of TPA? fibrinolysis
What is TPA? Tissue plasminogen activator
What is responsible for converting plasminogen to plasin? TPA
True or false. PLTs are phagocytic. True
What term refers to the arrest or stoppage of blood loss from vessels? hemostasis
The process of hemostasis is dependant on what three things? Vessel integrity, adequate number of circulating PLTs and presense of adequate coagulation factors
What organ is essential to coagulation? liver
Ehler danlos syndrome and Marfan syndrome are examples of what kind of disorders? collagen
What organ synthesizes most clotting factors? liver
What does the liver produce that is essential for vitamin K synthesis? bile
What vitamin is required to form a clot? K
What 4 factors require vitamin k for activation? II, VII, IX, and X
What is the MAIN task of primary hemostasis? platelet plug formation
What are the 3 steps of primary hemostasis? endothelial response (vasoconstriction), platelet adhesion, and platelet aggregation
When do PLTs become activated? Upon adherring to the normal endothelium
Endothelial response = _________________. Vasoconstriction
What term refers to group of PLTs adhereing to each other? aggregation
What is the ultimate goal of secondary hemostasis? fibrin formation
What part of hemostasis is known as coagulation cascade? secondary hemostasis
What encompasses the platelet plug and provides a superstructure for healing? fibrin
What part of hemostasis is intrinsic, extrinsic, and common pathways involved in? secondary
True or false. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways typically occur simultaneously after injury. True
Factors involved with intrinsic pathway come from what type of source? Plasma or platelets
What factor is embedded in the plasma membrane of most cells and is released by trauma? Factor III
Factors involved with extrinsic pathways come from what type of sources? those other than blood
After how long does clot retraction occur? ~30 mins
What are the 2 nicknames for a clot retraction? purse string or cinch sack
What term refers to any disorder of blood coagulation? coagulopathy
How are coagulopathies categorized? according to the stage of hemostasis they affect
What are the 2 types of coagulopathies? aquired or genetic
Coagulopathies may involve defects or deficits in what three things? vasculature, platelets or coagulation factors
What type of coagulopathies are associated with a single coagulation factor? genetic
What type of coagulopathies are associated with multiple coagulation factors? acquired
What part of the body makes a majority of the clotting factors? liver
What are 2 reasons you should suspect a hemostatic disorder? (4 total) increased bleeding time after venipuncture, evidence of bleeding into body cavities, family history of bleeding diathesis, or a history of prolonged bleeding
Chronic bleeding and prolonged bleeding are clinical signs of what type of hemostasis? primary hemostasis
What are the 2 types of quantitative primary hemostasis? thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis
What type of parasite destroys platelets? ehrlichia platys
Less than how many platelets is considered to thrombocytopenia? less than 30,000
More than how many platelets is considered to be thrombocytosis? more than 1 million
What are the 4 causes of thrombocytopenia? decreased production, increased rate of destruction, activation, and consumption
What is thrombocytopenia most commonly caused by? infectious diseases
What are the 3 causes of thrombocytosis? bone marrow disorders, secondary disorders, and splenic contractions
What are the 2 types of qualitative primary hemostasis? von willebrands disease and thrombocytopathy
What carries VWF? PLT granules
What is the test of choice for VWD? BMBT
What is BMBT? Buccal mucosa bleeding time
What breed of dog is the #1 risk for VWD? Doberman pinscher
What condition usually results from defective granules? thrombocytopathy
What is the number 1 cause of thrombocytopathy? NSAIDs
What are 2 acquired vascular causes of bleeding? scurvy or cushings
What are 2 hereditary vascular causes of bleeding? Ehlers Danlos or Marfan syndrome
What type of hemostasis have clinical signs like delayed bleeding, rebleeding, or hematoma formation? secondary hemostasis
What are the 3 acquired defects of secondary hemostasis? DIC, Hepatic disease, and rodenticide toxicity
Name a common active ingredient of rodenticides. Warfarin, Coumarin, and Dicoumarol
What factors require vitamin K for activation? II, VII, IX, and X
What test is used to confirm warfarin toxicity? OSPT
What is OSPT? One step prothrombin time
What is PIVKA? Proteins induced by vitamin K absence
What are the 2 tests of choice for rodenticide toxicity? PIVKA and OSPT
What type of RBCs are seen with DIC? Schistocytes
What are the 3 phases of DIC? Peracute, acute, and chronic
What is another name for the peracute stage of DIC? hypercoagulable
What is another name for the acute stage of DIC? consumptive
What clotting factor is activated by venom? Factor X
Is fibrinogen and PLT counts increased or decreased with DIC? increased
What 2 tests are prolonged with both DIC and liver dysfunction? PT and PTT
How id DIC diagnosed? three abnormal coagulation test results
Administration of what is controversial with DIC? heparin
What are the 3 potential causes of thrombosis? Changes in vessel wall, changes in blood constituents, and changes in blood flow
Saddle thrombus occurs most commonly in what species with what disorder? felines with hypertropic cardiomyopathy
What are the 3 mechanisms that work together to stop the flow of blood? vasocontriction, platelet plug formation and clotting
What are the 2 substances that control vasocontriction within the body? epinephrine and thromboxane
What type of hemostasis is all about vasocontriction and platelet plug formation? Primary
_____________ inhibits the action of thromboxane. Aspirin
PLTs must first adhere to what before becoming activated? collagen
The process of clotting requires what enzyme (responsible for converting fibrinogen to fibrin) thrombin
What is the ultimate goal of secondary hemostasis? fibrin formation
Damage to the tissue stimulates the activation of what factor that also catalyzes the activation of factor X? tissue thromboplastin
What enzyme dissolves clots? plasmin
What type of anticoagulant inhibits the processing of vitamin K? coumadin
What type of anticoagulant inhibits the activity of thrombin? heparin
What are the 2 drugs used to dissolves clots? TPA and streptokinase
What is the drug of choice for dissolving a clot? streptokinase
What condition is caused by a deficiency of any of the clotting factors? hemophilia
80% of all hemophilics are deficient in what factor? VIII
What substance is essential to the maturation of several clotting factors? vitamin k
How long does the intrinsic pathway take? 3-6 minutes
How long does the extrinsic pathway take? 15 seconds
What type of anticoagulant prevents the conversion of thrombin from prothrombin? heparin
What clotting factor is required for factor X to activate the prothrombin activator? V
What is another name for thromboplastin or factor III? tissue factor
What is another name for proconvertin of factor VII? stable factor
Which clotting factor is carried on VWF? XIII
Created by: fadedfaithless