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Carapucci Waves Test

The waves and thermodynamics test in Mr. Carapucci's physics class

WordDefinition
Thermodynamics The study of quantitative relationships between heat and other forms of energy
System Is that part of the entire universe which we have selected for consideration
Surroundings (Environment) Everything else in the universe
Open System Mass may enter or leave
Closed System No mass may enter or leave
Isolated System If no energy passes across the boundaries
Nonisolated System If energy does pass across the boundaries
Exothermic Energy flows out of the (nonisolated) system
Endothermic Energy flows into the (nonisolated) system
Internal Energy Is the total potential and kinetic energy of the particles of a substance
Enthalpy The internal energy and any energy due to the expansion possibilities of the system
Entropy The property that describes the disorder of a system (the internal energy of a system that cannot be converted to mechanical energy)
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other
First Law of Thermodynamics The quantity of energy (Q) supplied to any system in the form of heat = the work done by the system (W) + the change in internal energy of the system (dE) (Note: this is the basic law of conservation of energy as applied to internal and mechanical energy)
Second Law of Thermodynamics I - Heat flows naturally from a hot object to a cold object; heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot object - No device is possible whose sole effect is to transform a given amount of heat completely into work
Third Law of Thermodynamics It is not possible to lower the temperature of any system to absolute zero in a finite number of states (absolute zero is unattainable)
Adiabatic Process A process in which no heat is added to or removed from a system
Isothermal Process A process that takes place at a constant temperature
Isobaric Process A process that takes place at a constant pressure
Isochoric Process A process that takes place at a constant volume
Wave A disturbance that propagates through a medium or space
Pulse Wave A wave that consists of a few disturbances (i.e. shock wave)
Periodic Wave (Continuous Wave) The motions are repeated at regular intervals
Wavelength The distance between any two successive identical points on a wave
Frequency Is the number of complete cycles per unit of time (Hertz cycles per second)
Period Is the time for one complete cycle (seconds per cycle)
Amplitude Is the maximum displacement of a wave as measured from its equilibrium or undisturbed position (Angstroms or nanometers)
Transverse Wave A wave in which the vibrations are at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave
Longitudinal Wave A wave in which the vibrations are parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave
Rectlinear Wave The propagation of the advancing straight wave is perpendicular to the wave front
Circular Wave The propagation of the advancing circular wave lie along radial lines away from the center of disturbance
Incidence An approaching wave
Reflection The return of a wave from the boundary of a medium
Angle of Incidence The angle between the incident ray and the normal drawn to the point of incidence
Angle of Reflection The angle between the reflected ray and the normal drawn to the point of incidence
Ray A line drawn in the direction perpendicular to the wavefront
Wavefront The portions of the medium surface in which particles are in the same motion
Diffraction The spreading of a wave disturbance into a region behind an obstruction
Intensity The power transferred across a unit area perpendicular to the direction of energy flow
Damping The reduction in the amplitude of a wave due to the dissipation of wave energy
Wave Crest The top part of a wave
Wave Trough The bottom part of a wave
Sound The series of disturbances in matter to which the human ear is sensitive. Also, similar disturbances in matter above and below the normal range of human hearing.
Audio Range (Audio Spectrum) The audio range of frequences between 20 and 20,000 Hertz
Ultrasonic Vibrations in matter above 20,000 Hertz
Infrasonic Vibrations in matter below 20 Hertz
Sonic Spectrum The frequency range of sound
Superposition Combining the displacements of two or more waves vectorially to produce a resultant displacement
Standing Wave The resultant of two wave trains of the same wavelength, frequency, and amplitude, traveling in opposite directions through the same medium
Interference Refers to what happens when two waves pass through the same region of space at the same time
Constructive Interference When two standing waves approach each other on the same side of the equilibrium line, collide, separate, and continue to move in the same direction as before the collision
Destructive Interference When two standing waves approach each other on different sides of the equilibrium line, collide, separate, and continue to move in the same direction as before the collision
Beat The interference effect resulting from the superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies, propagating in the same direction. The amplitude of the resultant wave varies with time.
Node A point of no disturbance in a standing wave
Loop (Antinode) A midpoint of a vibrating segment of a standing wave
Resonance The inducing of vibrations of a natural rate by a vibrating source having the same frequency
Fundamental The lowest frequency of sound produced by an instrument
Harmonics (Overtones) The fundamental and the tones frequencies are whole number multiples of the fundamentals
Rarefraction The region of a longitudinal wave in which the vibrating particles are farther apart than their equilibrium distance
Compression The region of a longitudinal wave in which the distance separating the vibrating particles is less than their equilibrium distance
Refraction The bending of a wave disturbance as it passes obliquely from one medium to another
Angle of Refraction The angle between the refracted ray and the normal drawn to the point of refraction
Pitch Is the characteristic of sound that depends on the frequency that the ear receives
Loudness The sensation that depends principally on the intensity of sound waves reaching the ear
Quality The property of sound waves that depends on the number of harmonics and their prominence
Production of Sound I - Compression waves propagate as longitudinal disturbances - The disturbances consist of compression and rarefraction - These disturbances give rise to elastic forces in the propagating medium
Law of Reflection When a wave disturbance is reflected at the boundary of a transmitting meduim, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
Doppler Effect The change observed in the frequency with which a wave from a given source reaches an observer when the source and the observer are in relative motion
Production of Sound II - The particles of the medium acquire energy from the vibrating source and enter the vibrational mode themselves - The wave energy is passed along to adjacent particles as the periodic waves travel through the medium
Second Law of Thermodynamics II - The total entropy of any system plus that of its surroundings increases as a result of any natural process
Created by: smhill818