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Chapter 7 Chemicals

Chemical reaction

QuestionAnswer
What does exothermic mean? It describes a reaction that releases energy to its surroundings.
What does equilibrium mean? It's a state in which the forward and reverse paths of a change take place at the same rate.
What is a catalyst? It's a subsatnce that affects the reaction rate without being used up in the reaction.
What is decomposition? A reaction in which a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances. AB-> A+B
What is synthesis? A reaction in which two or more substances react to form a single substance. A+B-> AB
What is molar mass? The mass of one mole of a substance.
what is a coefficient? A number that appears before a formula in a chemical equation.
What is combustion? A reaction in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen, often producing heat and light.
What are products? The substances formed as the result of a chemical change.
What are reactants? The substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction.
What is endothermic? A chemical reaction that absorbs energy from its surroundings.
True or false: A chemical equation must be balenced in order to show that mass is conserved during a reaction. True
Chemists use a counting unit called a _______ to measure amounts of substances because chemical reactions often involve large numbers of small particals. Moles
What is a double replacement reaction? A reaction in which two different compounds exchange positive ions to form two new compounds. AB+CD-> AD + CB
What is an oxidation-reduction reaction? A reaction in which electrons are transferred fro mone reactant to another.
What is the process in which an element gains electrons during a chemical reaction. called? reduction
What is chemical energy? The energy stored in bonds of a substance.
During a chemical reaction, energy is either _______ or _______. released or absorbed
What is a reaction rate? The rate at which reactants change into products over time.
Generally, an increase in temperature will _________ the reaction rate. Increase
How does an increase in surface area affect the exposure of reactants to one another? An increase in surface area increases the exposer of reactants to one another.
Why does increasing the surface area of a reactant tend to increase the reaction rate? The increase in exposure of reatants to one another results in more collisions involving reactant particals. With more collisions, more particals will react.
One way that a catalyst can lower the energy barrier of a reaction is by providing a surface on which the ___________ can come together. Reacting particals
What are thw two types of Equilibria? 1. physical 2. chemical
What are factors affecting chemicla equilibrium? 1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Concentration
What happens when a physical change doesn't go to comletion? A physical equilibrium is established between the forward and reverse changes.
What happens when a chemical change doesn't go into completion? A chemical equilibrium is established between the forward and reverse reactions.
What is a single replacement? A reaction in which one element takes place of another element in a coumpound. A+BC-> B+AC
Created by: pernae