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Solutions Acids Base

Solution a homogeneous mixture
Solute the substance being dissolved; the substance of which there is less
Solvent the substance that is doing the dissolving; the substance of which there is more
Colloid a mixture of medium-size particles that do not settle out; the particles can scatter a light beam
Suspension a heterogeneous mixture of large particles that will settle out if not stirred
Tyndall Effect the observed scattering of light when shone through a colloid
How to tell the difference between a solution and a colloid use the Tyndall Effect
How to tell the difference between a colloid and a suspension filter them; the particles in a colloid will go through the filter paper; the particles in a suspension will be captured
Miscible two liquids that can be mixed in any proportion, example: alcohol and water
Immiscible two liquids that cannot be mixed in any proportion; example: oil and water
Like Dissolves Like substances with the same polarity are soluble in each other; water is a polar solvent, CCl4 is a nonpolar solvent; alcohols can dissolve in both; ionic substances are treated like polar substances
Polar Molecule a molecule with a dipole (positive and negative difference)
Polarity of Water water is polar
Solubility measures the amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature
Solubility of a solid solubility increases as temperature increases; pressure does not affect a solid’s solubility
Solubility of a gas solubility decreases as temperature decreases; an increase in pressure can increase a gas’s solubility
Soluble can be dissolved
Unsaturated solution more solute can be dissolved
Saturated solution the maximum amount of solute is dissolved
Supersaturated solution more than the maximum amount of solute is dissolved
Solubility curve a graph that plots the saturated solutions at a given temperature; grams per 100g of water
Homogeneous mixture mixture with no visible differences
Heterogeneous mixture mixture with visible differences
Dissolution the process of being dissolved
Three ways to increase the rate of dissolution of a solid heat, agitate(stir or shake), crush the solute
Why does heating increase the rate of dissolution heat with increase the kinetic energy of the solvent particles; the more energy particles hit the solute harder and more often thus breaking it apart faster
Why does crushing increase the rate of dissolution crushing a substance increases the surface area which is where the dissolving is going on
Why does stirring increase the rate of dissolution it brings fresh solvent in contact with the solute’s surface
Dissociation/Ionization Equations equation that shows how a solid breaks apart into ions when dissolved in water; example: KOH  K+ + OH-
Net Ionic Equation an equation that shows the ions that form the precipitate in a double-replacement reaction; example: Pb2+(aq) + S2-(aq)  PbSO4(s)
Electrolyte a solution of ions that can conduct an electric current
Nonelectrolyte a solution with no ions; it cannot conduct an electric current
Strong electrolyte a substance that dissociates 100%; it can conduct a strong electric current
Weak electrolyte a substance that does not dissociate 100%; it can conduct a weak electric current
Properties of Acids electrolyte, taste sour, turn litmus paper red, react with metals to form hydrogen gas, react with bases to form a salt and water
Properties of Bases electrolyte, taste bitter, turn litmus paper blue, feel slippery, react with acids to form a salt and water
Arrhenius Acid a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration; must contain H
Arrhenius Base a substance that increases the hydroxide ion concentration; must contain OH
Bronsted-Lowery Acid a substance that can donate a proton; must contain H
Bronsted-Lowery Base a substance that can accept a proton; includes OH or a negative charge
Proton a hydrogen ion
[H+] hydrogen ion concentration
[OH-] hydroxide ion concentration
Hydronium ion H3O+
Self-ionization of water H2O + H2O  OH- + H3O+
Conjugate pair two substances that differ by one hydrogen; the substance with more hydrogens is the conjugate acid and the other is the conjugate base
NH4+ and NH3 NH4+ is an acid; NH3 is a base
Amphoteric substance a substance that can act as an acid or a base (according to Bronsted-Lowery); usually has hydrogen and a negative charge; water is amphoteric;
Concentration measures the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent
Weak/Strong Concentration weak concentrations are dilute solutions; strong concentrations are concentrated solutions
Strong Acid/Base an acid or base that dissociates completely; it’s a strong electrolyte; this is not related to being a strong concentration; strength is measured with an ionization constant (Ka); larger numbers (smaller exponents) are stronger acids
Weak Acid/Base an acid or base that does not dissociate completely; it’s a weak electrolyte; this is not related to being a weak concentration; strength is measured with an ionization constant (Kb); larger numbers (smaller exponents) are weaker acids
Ionization constant K; measures the degree to which a substance dissociates; larger numbers (small exponents) dissociate more
Polyprotic acid an acid with more than one hydrogen; example: H2CO3
Molarity moles per liter; measures concentration
Molarity by Dilution M1V1=M2V2
pH equation is –log[H+]; used to determine if a substance is an acid, base or neutral
pOH equation is –log[OH-]
pH scale acids have a pH less than 7; bases have a pH greater than 7; neutral is 7; scale ranges from 0 to 14
pH+pOH pH + pOH
How to find concentration given pH the molarity equals 10 raised to the –pH
Sig figs for pH the number of sig figs in the concentration equals the number of decimal places in the pH
Neutralization Reaction acid + base --> salt + water; example: HF + KOH --> KF + H2O
Titration a process that determines the concentration of an unknown acid
Salt any ionic substance that can be formed from a neutralization reaction
Indicator a chemical that changes its color based on the pH
Phenolphthalein an indicator that is clear in an acid and pink in a base
Acid Names ide is hydro__ic acid; ite is __ous acid; ate is ___ic acid
strong acids will have ____ conjugate bases weak
weak acids will have ___ conjugate bases strong
strong bases will have ____ conjugate acides weak
weak bases will have ___ conjugate acids strong
Created by: ehsanip