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AP Psych ch.8

The fact that elderly people are often less able than younger adults to recall recently learned information can be best explained in terms of the greater difficulty older people have with Retrieval
The three most basic steps involved in human memory are: encoding, storage, and retrieval
By exposing research participants to three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of a second, Sperling demonstrated that people have memory. iconic
Echoic memory refers to: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Iconic memory : echoic memory :: __________ : _________ visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
After Jackie was shown the letters "g, c, k, p, and d" she recalled them as "g, c, j, t, and d." Her recall errors suggest that the letters had been encoded acoustically
Semantic encoding refers to the processing of meanings
For a very brief moment after the lightning flash disappeared, Mary retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of memory. iconic
You are shown the words "short, minor, tiny, and petite." An hour later you are likely to have the greatest difficulty correctly remembering whether or not you had seen the word "little."
Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited storage capacity? long-term memory
While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Judy effortlessly understands the meaning of every word. This ability highlights the importance of automatic processing.
Peterson and Peterson asked subjects to count aloud backward immediately after they were presented with three letters to remember. This was designed to prevent rehearsal.
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Sheryl writes the word 30 times. She is using a technique known as: rehearsal
Immediately after hearing a list of items that may be recalled in any order, people typically have the most difficulty remembering items: in the middle of the list.
Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of: semantic encoding.
Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way to facilitate: semantic encoding.
As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations. They were making use of: imagery.
After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected Web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ________ memory short-term
The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates effortful processing
Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________. retention; acquisition
Compared to formerly depressed people, those who are currently depressed are more likely to recall their parents as rejecting and punitive. This best illustrates: mood-congruent memory.
Mnemonic devices such as the “peg-word” system make effective use of visual imagery.
The process of getting information into memory is called Encoding
The process of retrieval refers to Getting information out of memory storage
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ____ memory. Long-term
Short-term memory is ______ permanent and _____ limited than long-term memory. Less; more
The three-stage processing model suggests that information from long-term memory can be ____ into ____ memory. retrieved; short-term
Hasher and Zacks observed that people recall the frequency of specific words in a list just as accurately whether or not they are forewarned of the recall task prior to seeing the list. This finds evidence for: Automatic processing
When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the person's name by repeating it to himself several times. Marcel makes use of a strategy called Rehearsal
Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory? Ebbinghaus
Ebbinghaus's retention curve best illustrates the value of: Rehearsal
Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information often requires: effortful processing
Tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as: The spacing effect
Students often remember more information fro a course that spans an entire semester than from a course that is completed in an intensive three-week learning period. this best illustrates the importance of : The spacing effect
The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of : Rehearsal
Proactive and retroactive interference contribute most strongly to be: Serial position effect
Most people misrecall the sentence, " the angry rioter threw the rock at the window " as "the angry rioter threw the rock through the window." Importance of Semantic encoding
Dario Donatelli could recall more than 70 sequentially presented digits by using the technique of chunking.
An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized? recognition
Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involves retrieval failure.
Where are explicit memories of newly learned verbal information and visual designs stored? Verbal information is stored in the left hippocampus and visual designs are stored in the right hippocampus.
Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to ________. meaning; imagery
In order to remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item as a t a certain location in her house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates the use of: The method of loci
Conscious memory of factual information is called _______ memory. Explicit
Why Ebbinghaus found the task of learning new lists of nonsense syllables increasingly difficault as his research career progressed? Proactive interference
Retroactive interference refers to Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material.
After studying biology all afternoon, Abba is having difficulty remembering details of the chemistry lecture e heard that morning. Abba's difficulty best illustrates: retroactive interference
An attorney's use of misleading questions may distort a court witnesss's recall of a previously observed crime The misinformation effect
Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly units of information. 7
Although Lisa can learn and remember how to solve a complicated jigsaw puzzle, she is unable to learn and remember the names of people to whom she has been introduced. Lisa is most likely to have suffered damage to her: hippocampus.
Procedural memory : declarative memory :: __________ : __________ skill memory; fact memory
Repression involves a failure in: retrieval.
Which of the following is the best example of a flashbulb memory? remembering what you were doing on September 11, 2001, when terrorists crashed planes into the World Trade Center towers
Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time.
Created by: 100000210514310