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Chemistry Midterm

Chemistry Midterm Study Guide

What is a scientific theory? a well tested explanantion for a broad set of observations.
what is mass? a measure of the amount of matter than an object contains.
what is vapor? a liquid or solid at room temperature.
what is a solid? has definite shape and volume
what is a liquid? has an indefinite shape, but has a fixed volume
what is a gas? takes both shape and voume of the container.
what are examples of physical properties? how it looks, what shape, and color
what are examples of chemical properties? what an element is made out of
what is a hetergeneous mixture? a mixture in which the compositon is not uniform throughout
what is a homogeneous mixture? a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout
what is a mixture? a physical blend of two or more components?
what is a compound? a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined
what is the law of conservation of matter? it states that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved.
what is scientiic notation? an expression of numbers in the form m * 10^n where m is equal to or greater than 1 and less than 10, and n is an integer.
what are significant figures? all digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit.
what is accuracy? a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever.
what is precision? a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another.
what is the si unit for length? meter; is the si unit for what
what is the si unit for mass? kilogram; is the si unit for what
what is the si unit for time? second; is the si unit for what
what is weight? a force that measures the pull on a given mass by gravity.
formula for density? D=m/v ; is the formula for what
first idea of atoms? Democritis
overall charge of atom? neutral
how many electrons are in the FIRST priniciple energy level? 2
how many electrons are in the SECOND priniciple energy level? 8
how many electrons are in the THIRD priniciple energy level? 18
how many electrons are in the FOURTH priniciple energy level? 32
what is the Aufbau priniciple? the rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first.
what is hund's rule? electrons that occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible.
what is the pauli exclusion prinicple? am atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, eacg with opposite spin direction.
what is wavelength? distance between crests
what is frequency? number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of time.
what is a photon? a quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarity to particles.
Created by: 813813055



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