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biochem final


3 ways pyruvate is converted aerobic oxidation-converst into 6CO2 and 6H2O anaerobic homolactic fermentation- 2lactate anaerobic alcholic fermentation- 2CO2, 2ethanol
how is galactose converted uses atp to form Glucose 6 phosphat
fructose pathway to glycolisis ->ATP->fructose-1-P ->FIP aldolase-> dihydroacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde->Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or Glycerol-3-P(makes TAG)
pyruvate uses what enzyme with NADH to produce lactate pyruvate dehydrogenase
how many ATP can a cell store 2-5
ATP stores a phosphate on ... phosphocreatine
pyruvate anaerobic alcohol fermentation pathway ->pyruvate dehydroxylase(looses CO2)-> acetaldehyde ->alcohol dehydrogenase(uses NADH)-> ethanol
how are pyruvates transformed into fatty acids ->coAsh(removal of CO2)-> acetal CoA ->fatty acid(->TAG)
what is the precurser for the synthesis of amino acids and how is it formed pyruvate ->CO2+ATP+pyruvate carboxylase-> oxylacitate
glycogen is stored... in muscles and the liver
name three subunits of pyruvate dehydroxylase and 5 coenzymes e1,e2,e3 TTP, lipoamide, NAD, CoA, FAD
products of Cytric acid cycle 2CO2, 3NADH, 1QH2(like nadh but nonpolar to work in membranes), and 1 GTP
Cs released from cytric are from not pyruvate
how much ATP does each cofactor produce when it is reoxidized NADH=2.5 QH2=1.5
what inhibits and activates and where in the cytric acid cycle Citrate on Citrate Sccinyl-CoA on ketoglutarate and Citrate NADH on Citrate, isocitrate, and ketoglutarate ADP and Ca2+ on isocitrate Ca2+ on ketoglutarate
at what step is the molecule transported to the cytosol citrate
how many proteins do mitochondria make 13 (vs. 1500) it neeeds
how does NADH get into the inner matrix malate dehydrogenase convers oxaloacetate to malate which goes into the matrix then converted back to oxa... then to aspartate which is transported out
adenine nucleotide translocase sends ATP out of matrix or ADP in
NADH ubiquinone reductase 1st structure in converting H+ to ATP; reduces Q to QH2 46 subunits
prosthetic groups of e- transport FMN- like FAD without AMP H atoms get transferred one at a time Iron-sulfer clusters transfers one e- at a time
how many protons get released in complex 1 4
how are protons transfered to the cytosol jumps from water and amino acids and prosthetic groups
heme b prosthetic group in III that differs in 3 substituants from heme a in the cytosol
complex III structure and function and name ubiquinone cytochrome c oxireductase dimmer of 11 each reoxidizes ubiquinone- 1st round ISP takes one e-,cyto b takes the other. cyto c1 takes from ISP then to cyto c(Fe3+)->Fe2+ 4 protons all together
how are e- transfered from III to IV cytochrome c
structure and name of IV Cytochrome c oxidase 13 subunits, 28 transmembrane a helices
IV uses Cu ions, 2 protons transfer
proton motive force PH .75 charge .17
structure of ATP synthase F0= a, 2b, 12-14 c F1= 3alpha, 3beta, 1 g, 1 y, 1E
Created by: 1273031739



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