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Synthesis

Additional Chemistry Edexel

QuestionAnswer
Actual Yield The amount of product obtained from a chemical reaction in reality. This may differ from the theortical yeildbecause the raw materials may not be pure or the reaction my not be complete.
Addition In polymer chemistry, a large molecule formed from alkene monomers added together to form chains.
Alkane A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds are single bonds.
Alkene A hydrocarbon in which two or more bonds are joined by double bonds.
Atom Economy The propertion of reactants that are converted into useful products.
Biodegradable Able to be broken down by soil bacteria.
Condensation A type of reaction in which two molecules join togetherto make a larger one, with water as a by product.
Covalent Bond A type of chemical bond in which a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.
Cracking A type of chemical reaction in which large alkane are decomposed to form two smaller alkanes and alkenes.
Cross-Links Strong covalent bonds that form between polymer molecules.
Displayed Formula A diagram of the structure of a molecule in which the elements are represented by letters and the bonds are shown by straight lines.
Double Bond Two covalent bonds between two atoms, involving two shared pairs of electrons.
Empirical Worked out from an experiment. A formula of this is worked out by dividing the mass of each element in a compound by its relative atomic mass.
Expected Yield The amount of product expected to be obtained from a reaction.
Formula An abbreviation for a substance with two or more atoms. The formula contains the symbols for the different elements in the substance, with numbers to show if there are two or more atoms of a particular element present.
Fraction A constituent part of crude oil produced by fractional distillation.
Fractional Distillation An idustrial process used to seperate the constituent parts of crude oil.
Hydrocarbon An organic compound contianing just carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrogenate To react with hydrogen.
Molecule Formula A chemical code that shows how many of each atom there are in a molecule.
Monomer A small molecule, for example an alkene, that can be joined to many other small molecules to form a much larger molecule.
Monounsaturated A substance (usually a fat) that only has one double bond.
Percentage Yield The percentage of theoretical yield that you actually get in a reaction.
Plasticiser A substance added to polymers to make them softer and more felxible. They allow polymer chains to slide over each othermore easily.
Polymer A large molecule made by linking lots of small molecules (monomer).
Polymerisation The process by which small alkenes (monomers) join together to form large molecules (polymers).
Polyunsaturated A substance (usaully a fat) that has more than one double bond.
Raw Material A starting substance for the manufature of a particular chemical.
Relative Atomic Mass The mass of an atom compared to the mass of a carbon atom, which has a relative atomic mass of 12.
Relative Formula Mass The mass of a molecule relative to the mass of a carbon atom.
Repeated Unit A section or monomer of a polymer which shows its structure.
Saturated Hydrocarbon A compound of hydrogen and carbon in which there are only single bonds. Aklanes are examples of these.
State Symbol Symbol used in chemical equation to show whether a substance is solid, liquid, gas or dissolved in water.
Sustainable Development Meeting teh needs of teh existing population without damaging the ability of future generations to meet future generations to meet their own needs.
Synthesis Making a substance using chemical reations.
Theorical Yield The maximum calculated amount of product that can be obtained form a particular quantity of reactants.
Thermoplastic A polymer that softens or melts when heated and becomes hard agian when cooled.
Thermosetting A polymer that cannot be melted or remoulded again once formed.
Toxic Poisonous. Can cause death if swallowed, breathed in or come into contact with skin.
Toxity How toxic or poisonous a substance is.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon A compound of hydrogen and carbon in which there is one or more double bond. Akenes are examples of these.
Unsaturated Monomer A small molecule that can form a polymer because it contains a double bond.
Viscous Sticky or thick, liquids like this are really hard to pour.
Hi Danielle I just got bored :p good luck revising!! from soph :) xx
Created by: DJEastwick