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Islam Terms

Islam state of perfect harmony between god and all creation; way of life based on Muh teaching and the Qur'an
Muslim one who follows the guidance of the Q and Sunna of M to be in perfect harmony with god.
Muhammad last in chain of prophets; born 570 CE in Mecca and later moved to medina to spread his teachings
Qur'an book revealed to Muhammad in 610-632 CE
Ka'aba cuboid temple in the center of mecca built by ibrahim and isma'il, the earthly focus of prayer
Ali son in law of Muhammad; ruled over caliphate from 656 til 661 and was first male convert. last of the 4 rightly guided caliphs
Khadijah first wife of Muhammad, "mothers of believers" 3 daughters married caliphs. said to have impeccable character and never believed in nor worshipped idols.
Caliph/khalifa traditional leader of the Sunni Muslims/Regent god on earth
Umayyads first dynasty of caliphate, based in Mecca; believed that their family and that of Muh descended from common ancestor
Abbasids second dynasty, based in Baghdad. descended from Muh youngest uncle and caliphate ended when power transfered to the Ottomans
Imam among shi'a muslims, infallible leader of the Muslim community. should be a direct descendent of Muhammad.
Sunni largest grouping among muslims, 90%
Shia/Shi'ite minority group who believe leaders must come from the Ahl al-Bayt
shari'a a pathway or complete code of life based on Q and Muhammads Sunna
sunna a recommended act; way of life of Muh
hadith tradition of Muh; something he did, said, taught, or action he approved.
companions of the prophet disciples, scribes, family of the prophet; scholars accept their testimony of his words and deeds, which were basis for developing Islamic tradition
qiyas analogical reasoning in Islamic law--teachings of hadith compared to those in Q in order to apply an injunction to a new event; may be used to solve or provide a response to a new problem
ijma consensus in Islamic law; first generation of Muslims only, first 3 generations of Muslims, jurists and scholars of Muslim world, or consensus of all Muslims
fatwa learned opinion based on personal judgment by a recognized authority in Islamic law. makes law compatible w/ democracy: whether something is right or wrong in religious terms can be determined by the consensus among the people
sufism mystical dimension of islam that focuses on a personal, individual relationship with God
sufi view of self see self as existing on a continuum and has potential to function from grossest to highest level; lowest=negative traits controlled by emotions and desire; process of growth depends on working through levels of self.
political islam ideologies that state islam is not only a religion but a political system; emphasize shari'a and political unity, and reject western influences in the Muslim world
muslim brotherhood one of the largest islamist parties; quran and sunnah as solo reference point for ordering the life of a muslim family, individual, community, and state; opposes violent means of achieving goals.
jamaat-i-islami oldest religious party in pakistan; establishment of a pure islamic state governed by sharia law and oppose capitalism, socialism and secularism
salafi islam first three muslim generations and their understanding of texts of Islam are considered orthodoxy. associated with literalist and puritanical approaches to Islamic theology. associated with muslims who use violent jihad as an expression of islam
ottoman millet system name for confessional communities under ottoman empire. separate legal courts pertaining to personal law in which communities were allowed to rule themselves under their own systems
arab-israeli war border tensions led to 6 day war in which israel and egypt/syria/jordan were at odds; israel's airstrikes inhibited that of the Arabs and they gained control of the Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem; refused to give it up until israeli-arab relations improved
hamas sunni islamist party governing the gaza strip. seen as terrorist organization by US, EU, and Canada; goal is to liberate palestine from israeli occupation and form islamic state in area that is israel, west bank, and gaza strip
justice and development party of turkey largest party in turkey; center-right liberal conservative party; advocates a liberal market economy and turkish membership in the EU
kemalism Mustafa Kemal. republicanism, secularism (no state religion and secular control of laws and education; nationalism, populism (mutual responsibility of state and individual and absence of social classes); revolutionism and etatism
al-Qaeda militant sunni terrorist group founded by Osama bin Laden; stateless and multiracial army calling for global jihad; responsible for 2001 WTC attacks
Taliban ruled afghanistan from 1996 to 2001; radical policies supported terrorists and ostracized them from world community; outed by US military in response to WTC attacks
nation of Islam mainly african american movement to improve spiritual, mental, societal,and economic condition of AA in the united states; teaches black pride and principles of islam; teach that their founder was the manifestation of God
arab revoultions spring 2011 revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in arab world to raise awareness against state attempts at repression, such as police corruption and ill treatment. 3 govts overthrown: Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia
5 ways Islam is Abrahamic ideas about heaven and hell, communal worship practices, monotheistic, multiple prophetic tradition, idea of God as transcendent
Created by: bamboletta



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