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Chapter 4 Science!

Elements and the Periodic Table

QuestionAnswer
What are the three main parts of an atom? proton, neutron, electron
Where are the protons located in an atom? nucleus
Where are the neutrons located in an atom? nucleus
Where are the electrons located in an atom? electron cloud surrounding the nucleus
The nucleus contains most of the an atoms ____? mass
Tell why an atom is neutral. In an atom there is an equal amount of protons (+) and electrons (-). The charges balance each other out, making an atom neutral.
What is the atomic number of an atom? the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
The modern periodic table is arranged by ________________? atomic number
What are the three main catergories of the elements? metals, non-metals, and metalloids
Columns on the periodic table are called ________________ groups or families
Rows on the periodic table are called ___________________? periods
What charge does a proton have? (+)
What charge does a neutron have? (o)
What charge does an electron have? (-)
How many electrons can each shell hold? First-2 electrons Second-8 electrons Third-8 electrons for first four periods
What is the atomic number? The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
What is the atomic mass? The number of protons and neutrons added together in an atom.
What do periods tell you? number of energy levels
What do columns tell you? number of valence electrons
What are some qualities of alkali metals? soft, shiny, malleable, ductile, never found uncombined in nature, 1 valence electron
What are some qualitites of alkaline earth metals? soft, shiny, malleable, ductile, never found uncombined in nature, 2 valence electrons
What are the two most common alkaline earth metals? magnesium and calcium
What are some qualitites of the transition metals? shiny, malleable, ductile, most commonly known, used to make jewelery and coins
What are some qualities of the boron family? 3 valence electrons, most metals, boron is a metalloid.
What are some qualities of the carbon family? 4 valence electrons, contains matals metalloids and nonmetal (carbon)
What are some qualitites of the nitrogen family? 5 valenece electrons, contains metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
What are some qualities of the oxygen family? 6 valence electrons, reactive, contains metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
What are some qualitites of the halogens? very reactive, non-metals, 7 valence electrons, salt forming
What are some qualitites of the noble gases? exist as gases, non-metals, 8 valence electrons (full) non reactive, Helium (He) has 2 valence electrons (full)
What are some qualitites of the rare earth metals? some are radioactive, conduct electricity, silvery, white metals
What are some qualities of metals? ductile, malleable, shiny, reactive, good conductors of heat and electricity.
What are some qualitites of non metals? poor conductors, dull, brittle, not malleable, not ductile
What are some qualitites of metalloids? can be shiny or dull, better conductors than non metals but not as well as metals, malleable, ductile
What are some qualities of oxygen? most abudant element element in the earth's crust, extremeley reactive, combines with almost all elements
What are some qualitites of nitrogen? makes up 78% of earths atmosphere, non metal
What are some qualitites of carbon? basis of life, non metal, there is an entire branch of chemistry devoted to carbon compounds called organic chemistry
What are some qualitites of helium? lightest gas besides hydrogen, non metal, non reactive
What are some qualitites of hydrogen? gas at room temp., has a class of its own, one proton one electron and one energy level
What are some qualitites of aluminum? most abudant metal in earths crust
What is a molecule composed of two atoms? diatomic molecule
What type of oxygen do we breathe? O2 (diatomic molecule)
Who founded the periodic table? Mendeleev
How are the elements arranged on the periodic table? by atomic number
What does ductile mean? can be pulled out, or drawn, into a long wire
What does malleable mean? can be hammered into flat sheets
Created by: lp1213
 

 



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