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Chem Final

Final exam for CHEM 1024

In a measured number, the ________ ________ are all the digits including the estimated digit. significant figures
To know how many significant figures are in an answer, convert it into scientific notation. All the numbers that make up the __________ are significant figures. coefficient
There is always some __________ in every measurement. When a measurement ends right on a marked line, a zero is written for the estimated digit. uncertainty
Counted numbers and numbers relative to definitions WITHIN one certain measurement system are called ________ _________. exact numbers
Metric system prefix that means "multiply base unit by 1,000" (10^3) kilo
Metric system prefix that means "divide base unit by 100" (10^-2) centi
Metric system prefix that means "divide base unit by 1,000" (10^-3) milli
In multiplication or division, the final answer is written with the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the ________ significant figures. fewest
In addition and subtraction, the final answer is written with the same number of _______ _______ as the measurement with the fewest significant figures. decimal places
_________ is relative to a comparison of the measured value of an individual measurement to that of the "true" value. (The true value os also clled the "literature value") Accuracy
A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with ONE ANOTHER when the same person repeats the same measurement using the same measuring devices under the same conditions: Precision
__________ is relative to each specific measuring device. It is the doubt range inherent to that measuring device. Uncertainty
________ ________ is the absolute difference of the literature value and the measured value divided by the literature value times 100. Percent Error
_______ _______ = (LV-MV/ LV) x 100 Percent Error
The absolute difference bewteen the actual value and the measured value: Error
Every valid equality has ____ possible conversion factors. two
Begin every Unit Factor Method problem with a(n) _______ ________. incomplete equality
Percentages can be turned into _________ _______with this formula: part/whole x 100. For example, if an alloy is 25% by mass silver, this could be written as 25 g silver/100 g alloy or 100 g alloy/25 g silver. valid ratios
The Universe consists of these two things: Matter and Energy
The ability to do work is defined as: Energy
The non-physical aspect of the universe that we measure in terms of change: Energy
The physical aspect of the Universe is matter. We can measure this in terms of _______ and ________. mass and volume
Measurement that describes a quantity of matter: mass
Measurement that describes space occupied by matter; volume
Anything that has mass and occupies space: matter
Matter that has a fixed or definite composition is called a _______ ________. pure substance
This is the simplest type of pure substance. It is composed of only one type of material: Element
This is a pure substance that consists of atoms of two or more elements, always chemically combined in the same ratio. Compound
In a ________, 2 or more substances are physically mixed, but NOT chemically combined. mixture
In any ________, the proportions of the components can vary. mixture
_______ ________ can be used to separate mixtures because there are no chemical interations between components. Physical processes
In _________ ________, also called solutions, the composition is UNIFORM throughout the sample. homogenous mixtures
In ________ _________, the components do NOT have a uniform composition throughout. heterogenous mixture
The energy of motion: kinetic energy
Stored energy (determined by the position of an object or by the chemical composition of a substance) potential energy
When matter undergoes a _________ _________, its state or appearance will change, but its composition remains the same. physical change
When matter undergoes a _________ _________, the original substance is converted into one or more new substances, which have different chemical and physical properties. chemical change
The type of energy associated with the motion of particles: Heat (thermal energy)
What are the 3 physical states of matter? Solid, Liquid, Gas
In a ________, the particles have enough energy to move freely in random diractions, but they are still close to each other and have enough attraction to maintain a definite volume. liquid
In a _______, the particles move at high speeds, which creates great distance between the molecules. gas
In a _______, very strong attractive forces hold particles close together. solid
Matter undergoes a _________ _____ _________ when it is converted from one state to another. This is a physical change. change of state
_______ _____ _______ is the energy associated with FREEZING and MELTING. Heat of Fusion
The ________ _____ ________for H20 is 80 cal/1 g ice. This means that 80 calories is needed to melt exactly 1 gram of ice. Conversely, 80 calories must be taken away from water at its freezing point for exactly 1 g of water to freeze. Heat of Fusion
True or False? The melting point of water and the freezing point of water is the same. True. The MP and the FP of water is 0 degrees Celcius.
During a change of state, the tempurature of the substance __________ __________. remains constant! (equilibrium)
________ _____ _________ is the energy associated with vaporization and condensation. Heat of Vaporization
The boiling point of water (which is also the point at which it condenses) is _______ degrees Celcius. 100
The Heat of Vaporization for water is 540 cal/1 g water. This means when 540 cal is REMOVED from vapor at 100 deg Celcius, 1 gram of the water ________. Conversely, when 540 cal is ADDED to water at 100 deg Celcius, 1 gram of water will ________. Condenses / Vaporizes
_______ ________ is the heat energy required to raise one gram of water by one degree Celcius. Specific Heat
Heat energy released to the environment by a chemical reaction: Exothermic Reaction
Heat energy obtained from the surroundings by a chemical reactions: Endothermic reaction
The property of basic units of matter that determines the physical STATE of that matter is: The amount of ATTRACTION the molecules have for one another.
The atomic number of an element is its number of: protons
The subatomic particles contained in the nucleus of an atom: protons and neutrons
Subatomic particle that has mass but 0 charge: neutron
The Mass Number is the sum of the ________ and ________ of an atom. neutrons and protons
In Isotopic Notation, the _______ _______ is in at the top, left of the chemical symbol. Mass Number
In Isotopic Notation, the ________ ________ is at the bottom, left. Atomic Number
The number of electrons an atom has is equal to the number of its ________. protons
The weighted average number expressed in decimals below each element's chemical symbol onthe periodic table: Atomic Mass
The electrons of an atom are characterized by _________ _________. relative energies
Electrons that are of the highest main energy level are called ________ ________. valence electrons
_________ elements can form 2 or more ions. Transition
The volume of an atom can be described in terms of its _________ _________. atomic radius
In representative elements, Atom volume _________ going down a group. increases
In representative elements, Atom volume _________ from left to right across a period. decreases
In representative elements, Ionization energy _________ going down a group. decreases
In representative elements, Ionization energy ________ from left to right across a period. increases
___________is the most electronegative element. Fluorine
________ _________ is stored in chemical bonds. Potential energy
The basic unit for monoatomic elements (ex: O, Fe , Hg )is: Atom
The basic unit for polyatomic elements (ex: 02 , S8 ) and nonmetal compounds (covalent)(ex: C4H10) is: Molecule
The basic unit for ionic compounds (metal and nonmetal): Ionic Formula Unit (IFU)
A group of COVALENTLY bonded nonmetal atoms that has an overall electrical charge: Polyatomic ion
A chemical compound that contains exactly 2 different metal and nonmetal elements: Binary Ionic Compound
The electrostatic force of attraction between 2 nuclei, with shared pairs of valence electrons: Covalent Bond
Created by: taranorwood



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