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PHSchool Exam study

Hey:) This is for all the 8th graders at QOA Happy Studying

QuestionAnswerQuestion AnswerQuestion Answer
Using one or more of your senses to gather info is called Observing Define Scientific Inquiry Refers to the different ways scientists study the natural world Physical science is divided into two main areas: Chemistry and ________ Matter
You are inferring when a.)make a forecast of what will happen in future b)develop an imaginative way to solve a problem c)explain or interpret the things you observe d)draw a conclusion about a hypothesis C) explain or interpret the things you oberve Define Scientific Law A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. An_____is a person trained to use both technology and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems Engineer
A factor that can change in an experiment is called a _____? Variable The purpose of a technological system is called its ______? Goal True or False? A (responding variable) is the factor in an experiment that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis False: controlled
In an experiment, the one variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis is called the______? Manipulated Variable What is the result or product of a technological system? Output True or False? A working model used to test a design is called a (system) TRUE
A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results is ______ Scientific Theory What are 3 skills scientists use to learn more about the world? 1.Observing 2.inferring 3.predicting Which is a physical property? A) Color B) ability to burn C)ability to rust A: Color
How people change the world around them to meet their needs or to solve practical problems is called_______? Technology Explain the difference between Qualitative and quantitative? Quantitative: Are measurements Qualitative: descriptions that don't involve measurements Whats and example of chemical change burning wood answers may vary
Every chemical or physical change in matter includes a change in Energy You can find the density of an object by dividing its mass by its____ Volume What holds atoms together in a molecule? Chemical Bond
Endothermic Change: a change in which energy is taken in Exothermic change: A change in which energy is given off Explain the difference between Heterogeneous and Homogeneous mixtures. Heterogeneous: you can see the different parts Homogeneous: You cant see the different parts
A pure substance is made of only one kind of matter and has definite properties True or False True The volume of liquid is measured in a graduated cylinder Potential Energy the energy the object has because of its position
Chemical energy: the internal energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms is a form of potential energy Electrodes placed in a solution but they don't touch Solid a kind of matter that keeps its shape and volume
Explain the difference between amorphous and crystalline solids: Crystalline: Solids made of crystals amorphous: the particles not arranged in a regular pattern Surface tension: the result of an inward pull among the molecules on the surface closer together viscosity: a liquids resistance to flow
According to boyles law, as the volume of a gas is made smaller, the pressure of the gas_____ gets higher
Explain Charles's law: It found that when the pressure if a gas is increased at a constant temperature its volume increases. When the temperature of a gas is decreased at a constant pressure, its volume decreases Explain Boyle's law: When the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased at a constant pressure, its volume increases. When the pressure is decreased at a constant pressure its volume decreases. Pressure= Force --------- Area
A graph that shows that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature under constant pressure demonstrates Charles's Law A graph of Boyle's Law shows the relationship between____? volume and pressure of gas
The volume of gas is the same as its Container The boiling point of a substance is affected by the pressure of air above the substance the oposite of vaporization is called condensation
define atom: smallest particle of an elememt Define Daltons atomic theory: All atoms cannot be divided. All atoms of the same element are the same and have identical masses Atoms cannot be created or destroyed only rearranged every compound is composed of atoms of a different element. What did Thomson find? He found that atoms contain negatively charged particles. He also reasoned that atoms must contain some sort of positive charge.
In radiation therapy unhealthy human cells are_____? Destroyed Radioactive isotopes called_______ can be used to detect some medical problems tracers A piece of paper will provide protection from alpha radiation
Explain Rutherford experiment: He discovered that charged particles would pass right through the foil in a straight line Nucleus: the center of a cell or atom Protons: Positively charged particles
Explain Bohr's Model: He showed that electrons could have only specific amounts of energy, leading them to move in certain orbits. Energy Level: an electrons movement In a periodic table, the most reactive metals are found In group one, the first column on the left
The 2 most common Alkaline earth metals are Magnesium and Calcium Which groups contains the most elements? transition Metals Which group of elements shares the same characteristics with both metals and nonmetals? Metalloids
How does nuclear fusion create new elements inside stars? small nuclei combine to form larger nuclei The sun is mostly made up of hydrogen In an atom, the number if protons equals the number of electrons
True or False: The modern periodic table is organized according to the atomic mass. FALSE:atomic number Mendeleev created the first periodic table by arranging elements in order of increasing atomic mass Diatomic Molecule: formed of 2 identical atoms
Halogen a family of very reactive elements whose atoms gain or share one electron. non metal: a type of element whose physical properties are generally opposite to that of metals Nuclear Fusion: process in which 2 atomic nuclei combine forming a larger nucleus and releasing huge amounts of energy
alkaline earth metals: group 2 metals alkali metals group 1
Valence Electron: electrons that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely Electron dot diagram: includes the symbol for the element surrounded by dots.
The noble gases have eight valence electrons,and as a result are________ stable a neutral group of atoms joined by covalent bonds is a Molecule A covelant bond in which the atoms equally share a pair of electrons is called Non Polar
Most atoms are less likely to react with other atoms when they have _______valence electrons 8 When two atoms share 2 pairs of electrons a ______forms double bond
What happens when one element is polar and the other is non polar? Both become non polar An ionic bond is the attraction between oppositely charged ions Ions that are made of more than one atom are examples of polyatomic ions
What is one characteristic property of an ionic compound? They form hard, brittle crystals with characteristic shapes define ion: an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge define ionic bond: the attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions
In what form can an ionic compound conduct electricity? when dissolved in water Which is a property shared by most molecular compounds? low melting point Molecular compounds do not conduct electricity because they do not break up into ions
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally is? polar Molecules that contain 2 polar bonds are sometimes polar Covalent bond: the chemical bond form when 2 atoms share an electron
define Alloy: mixture made up of 2 or more elements that has the properties if metal. Which particles in an atom are in the nucleus? protons and neutrons In the chemical formula for an ionic compound, which item is first? positive ion
Ductile: bent easily and pulled into thin strands. Malleable: rolled into thin sheets and beaten into complex shapes Electrons involved in bonding between atoms are valence electrons
Catalyst: a material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy Decomposition a chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products Precipitate a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
reactants the materials you have at the beginning of a chemical reaction Synthesis: a chemical reaction in which 2 or more substances combine to make a more complex compound concentration: The amount of one material in a given volume of another material
Inhibitor: A material used to decrease the rate of a reaction Combustion a rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel Activation Energy The minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Replacement: A chemical reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound Products: The substances formed as a result of a chemical reaction Coefficent: A number placed in front of a chemical formula in a chemical equation
Chemistry: The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes What type of reaction is this FeS+2 HCI-->FeCl2+H2S A double replacement reaction. Endothermic Reaction: a reaction in which energy is absorbed
Exothermic Reaction A reaction that releases energy What happens when chemical bonds break and new bonds form? a chemical reaction The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction is____________________ the production of one or more new substances
In chemical reactions, what does the principle of conservation of mass mean? Matter is not created or destroyed What does not increase the number of particles in a chemical reaction? adding a catalyst Open system: matter can escape
What are the 3 things in a fire triangle? oxygen, fuel, heat closed system: matter cannot escape
What is a factor that limits or restricts a design? Constraint What is inferring? Making an inference The energy of matter in motion is called Kinetic
The process in which group members freely suggest any creative solutions to a problem is called? Brainstorming Scientific Inquiry Begin with? Posing questions Electromagnetic Energy a form of energy that travels through space as waves
Define Scientific Inquiry Well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations List the process scientists use in inquiry Posing Questions,Developing questions, designing experiments, collecting and interpreting data, drawing conclusions, and communicating results Table sugar and salt are examples of what? pure substances
Weight the measurement of force of gravity on an object Volume the measurement of how much matter an object contains Density the measurement of how much mass is contained in a given volume
Created by: kenna42298