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Y9SciPhyTopic4

Year 9 Science Physics Topic 4 Waves and the Earth

QuestionAnswer
Frequency The number of waves passing a point each second.
Hertz (Hz) The unit for frequency 1 hertz is 1 wave per second.
Longitudinal E.g. sound waves where the direction of energy transfer is parallel with the direction of movement of the energy.
Medium Something through which waves travel.
Pitch Whether a sound is low or high.
Infrasound Sound waves with a frequency below 20Hz which is too low for the human ear to detect.
Ultrasound Sound waves with a frequency above 20000Hz which is too high for the human ear to detect.
Reflect When a wave bounces off a boundary between two materials.
Sonar A way of finding the distance to an underwater object (such as the sea floor) by timing how long it takes for a pulse of ultrasound to be reflected.
Ultrasounds scan A way of making an image of part of the body (usually a foetus) using ultrasound waves reflected from parts of the inside of the body.
Earthquake A sudden movement within the Earth releasing a large amount of stored energy.
Seismic waves Waves produced by an explosion or earthquake and which travels through the Earth. They include P-waves and S-waves.
Seismometer An instrument that detects seismic waves.
Focus The place where an earthquake begins usually under the surface.
Epicenter The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus of an earthquake.
P waves Longitudinal seismic waves that travel through the Earth.
S waves Transverse seismic waves that travel through the Earth.
Crust The outer surface of the Earth.
Mantle The part of the Earth between the crust and the core.
Core The middle of the Earth.
Refraction The chang of speed and direction of a wave when it enters a new material.
Plates Sections of the outermost layer of the Earth that can move relative to each other.
Tectonic plates Pieces of the surface of the Earth which can move around very slowly.
Convection currents A current caused by parts of a fluid being at a different temperature and so a different density to the rest of the fluid.
Tsunami A huge wave caused by an earthquake or landslide on the sea bed.
Created by: bookcase