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chem lecture ch15

Brønstedt-Lowry acids and bases Arrhenius defined, that acid-base neutralizations are reactions in which an acid and a base combine forming water and a salt.views acid-base reactions as proton transfers. An acid is a proton donor. A base is a proton acceptor.
conjugate acid-base pair Two substances that differ from each other by only one proton
Amphoteric substances substances (molecules, ions) that can react as either acids or bases
define strength of an acid its ability to donate a proton to a base. We measure the strength by determining the progress of this reaction towards completion. A reference base is needed to compare different acids, water is the reference of choice.
define a strong acid one that is completely converted to a new acid, the hydronium ion. Accordingly, H3O+ is the strongest acid in water.
define a weak acid one that produces two acidic species.
When two amphoteric substances are mixed...? the stronger acid will react as an acid, the stronger base as a base.
Binary acids acids that consist of hydrogen and a nonmetal.The strength of the binary acids increase from the left to the right within a period. The strength of the binary acids increase from the top to the bottom within a group.
oxoacids Acids composed of hydrogen, oxygen and some other element. All structures of oxoacids have O-H groups, which donate the protons. The acidity of the protons is determined by the polarity of the O–H bond.
how does electronegativity of the central atom affect the acidity of an oxoacid? As the electronegativity of the central atom increases, the acid becomes stronger.
Lewis acid any ionic or molecular species that can accept a pair of electrons in the formation of a coordinate covalent bond. have valence orbitals, that are not completely filled such as BF3 or H+.
Lewis base any ionic or molecular species that can donate a pair of electrons in the formation of a coordinate covalent bond. have completely filled valence orbitals and unshared pairs of electrons
acidic anhydrides Nonmetal oxides that react with water and give acidic solutions.
how does the oxidation number of a metal influence acid-base properties? As the oxidation number on a metal ion increases, the metal ion becomes more acidic, it becomes a better electron pair acceptor. Examples: Na2O CaO Al2O3 CrO3
define Acidic and basic solutions in terms of relative concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions. Neutral solution: [ H3O+ ] = [ OH- ] Acidic solution: [ H3O+ ] > [ OH- ] Basic solution: [ H3O+ ] < [ OH- ]
pH basic formulas pH = -log [ H+ ] [ H+ ] = 10^-pH Ion product constant KW = [ H+ ] [ OH- ] at 25 °C pKW = pH + pOH = 14 at 25 °C
Contributors to the proton concentration in an acid (formula) [ H+ ]total = [ H+ ]solute + [ H+ ]water
Created by: jsherm82