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Merrill Chem. Ch. 10

Pointless rules I really don't care about.

QuestionAnswer
Elements in the same column have similar... outer level electron configurations
Outer level electron configurations change in a regular way from... one column to the next
Properties are... periodic
What kind of elements have the highest density? Metals
What kind of elements have the lowest density? Nonmetals existing as gases at room tempereature
As the principle quantum number increases, the size of the electron cloud... increases
How does the size of atoms develop as you look down the table? It increases
Why does the size of atoms decrease as you move across a period? One proton is added with each element, which means the electron cloud is pulled in tighter each time
How does the atomic radii of atoms increase? Top to bottom and right to left
The density pattern is... low-high-low
In general, when atoms form to unite compounds... the compound is more stable than the uncombined atoms
Noble gas configurations are particulartly stable because... the noble gases have filled outer energy levels
Chemists discuss the size of ions by referring to their... ionic radii
Metallic ions, on the left and in the center of the table, are formed by... the loss of electrons
Nonmetallic ions, located on the right side of the table, are formed by... the gain of electrons and are larger than the atoms from which they are formed
Metallic ions have an outer level that resembles that of... the noble gas at the end of the preceding period
Non metallic ions have an outer level resembling that of... the noble gas to the right of the same period
The loss of one electron from the metals in Group 1 will give them the same configuration as... a noble gas
What is the oxidation number of Group 1? 1+
What is the oxidaton number of Group 2? 2+
What is the oxidation number of Group 13? 3+
What is the oxidation number of Group 14? 2+ or 4+
What is the oxidation number of Group 15? 3-
What is the oxidation number of Group 16? 2-
What is the oxidation number of Group 17? 1-
What is the oxidation number of Group 18? 0
What is ionization energy? The energy required to remove an electron from an atom
What is first ionization energy? The energy required to remove the loosest electron from an atom
What is ionization energy mesured in? Kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol)
How does the first ionization energy change as atomic number increases with a period? It increases
How does the first ionization energy change as atomic number increases with a group? It decreases
First ionization energy can help classify elements into... metals or nonmetals
What kind of first ionization energy do metals have? Low FIE
What kind of first ionization energy do nonmetals have? High FIE
As you go down a column of the periodic table, first ionization energy... decreases
What are two things that tend to lower first ionization energy? Increased distane of the outer electrons from the nucleus and the sheilding effect
What is the sheilding effect? When inner electrons block the attraction of the nucleus for outer electrons
The number of electrons in the outermost sublevel is the same for all elements in a particular... group
Why does first ionization energy increase as you move across a period? Because the nuclear charge increases
What are the four factors that affect ionization energy? 1. Nuclear Charge- up, up 2. Sheilding Effect- up, down 3. Radius- up, down 4. Sublevel- an electron from a full or half-full sublevel requires additional energy to be removed
The first ionization removes a __ electron. *p electron
The second ionization removes a __ electron from a full __ sublevel. *s electron, s sublevel
Are the second and third electrons in different or the same sublevels? They are in the same
Why is the third electron's ionization energy greater? Because the positive nuclear charge remains constant as you remove electrons
What is electron affinity? The attraction of an atom for an electron
The same factors that affect ionization energy also affect... electron affinity
As electron affinity increases, a(n) ____ in ionization energy can be expected. Increase
Metals have ___ electron affinities. Low
Nonmetals have ___ electron affinities. High
As you go down a group, the tendency to gain electrons _____. This is because atoms farther down the column are lerger. (The nucleus is farther from the surface, and attracts the outer electrons ___ strongly.) Decreases, less
As you move across a period (left to right) what happens to the attraction for electrons? It increases
Are positive ions smaller or larger than the atoms from which they are produced? Smaller
Are negative ions smaller or larger than the atoms from which they are produced? Larger
Metals tend to ____ electrons. This means they have positive oxidation numbers. Lose
Nonmetals tend to ____ electrons. This means they have negative oxidation numbers. Gain
Created by: hannahb11