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Chem 115 Post-Exam 3

What are the basic components of the DNA nucleotide Phosphate; sugar; base (in that order)
What are the complimentary base pairs in DNA? A-T / C-G
DNA exists as a double helix shape with two helices held together through what? Hydrogen bonding
Which is stronger? A-T or C-G C-G has 3 H bonds! while A-T has 2
What is different between DNA and RNA? RNA's sugar is ribose & Has U instead of T
Why can DNA replicate itself by separating its strands during cell division? Complementary pairing
Describe the 3 main components of the DNA structure 1. Helix 2. Sugar-phosphate backbone 3. Rungs of very specific base pairs held together by h-bonds
What is the complementary sequence of RNA to this DNA sequence? ACGTTC UGCAAG
What is translation Converting information from nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence in a protein
A 3-base sequence is called what? What does it indicate? Codon - indicated specific amino acids
Steps of translation: 1. portion of DNA unwinds 2. mRNA reads and codes (transcribes)... then goes out 3. tRNA (transfer) links amino acids in correct order ... comes in
What drives function SHAPE
DNA and RNA a are polymers of what nucleotides
What's the difference between and addition reaction and a condensation reaction Addition has no products; Condensation produces polymer and H2O
Characterized by repetition of a group of atoms that are bonded to each other Polymer
What is the repeat unit in protein? In DNA? amino acid; nucleotide
Is the cell membrane a polymer? Why/Why not? NO; Not covalently bonded
What are the three shapes of polymers Linear; Branched; Cross linked
What kind of materials are linear polymers strong
Difference between thermoset and thermoplastic polymers Thermoset: HAS crosslinks; very rigid; can't move of degrades in heat Thermoplastic: NO crosslinks; Heat melts and then reshapes
What is required for an addition reaction A double or triple bond
How does addition stop 2 free radicals run into each other and bond
Two monomers react and form a chain and a small second molecule Condensation polymerization
Is a protein an addition or a condensation polymer? Condensation
What are three biopolymers? DNA, protein, and cellulose
How many unit cells share an atom located at a corner of a unit cell 8
How many unit cells share an atom located on an edge of a unit cell 4
How many unit cells share an atom located on a face of a unit cell 2
How many atoms are in a simple cubic unit cell 1
How many atoms are in a body centered cubic unit cell 2
How many atoms are in a face-centered cubic unit cell 4
What are the five major types of crytalline solids 1. covalent/ network 2. ionic 3. molecular 4. atomic (noble gasses; dispersion only) 5. metallic
Density = Mass/ volume
What type of solids lack an ordered internal structure amorphous solids
Solids in which atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a repeating pattern crystalline solids
The collection of all the points within a crystal that have identical environments is called what space lattice
What is the unit cell arrangement of NaCl Face centered cubic lattice of anions; cations in octahedral holes
What two factors determine ionic structures? 1. Size of the ions 2. Ratio of positive to negative ions
Which type of packing is each? 1. ababababab... 2. abcabcabcabc... 1. Hexagonal closest packing 2. cubic closest packing
What type of holes do small cations occupy? Large cations? Small - tetrahedral Large - octahedral
The color of gold nanoparticles in solution depends on what size and shape
What is an n-type semiconductor extra negative; more valence electrons
What is a p-type semiconductor less valence electrons; empty orbitals act as positive holes
As the number of atoms in a solid increase, the amount of valence energy levels ________-. increases
The filled band at the bottom valence band
an empty band at the top conduction band
What is the gap in energy between the conduction band and valence band in band theory Band gap
What does the band gap determine electrical properties/ conductivity
It is useful for solar cells to be responsive to light in the visible portion of the spectrum. Which would be most useful? a. bandgap = 5.5E-19 J b. bandgap = 1.5E-19 J c. bandgap = 1.2E-18 J A... E=hc/wavelenth
What are nanomaterials Materials where the particle dimensions are on the 10E-9 (nm) scale
What is adding small amounts of other elements to increase or decrease the number of valence electrons in the bands doping
What are some applications of nanomaterials cancer/biomedical, electronic devices, drug delivery, clothing
Adding a certain organic group to a nanoparticle funcitonalizing
_____________result when large number of atoms combine to form crystal Energy bands
Power(w) = ?? energy(j)/Time (S)
What does it mean to use solar energy in a passive way? allowing solar radiation to be captured as heat which is then released as needed
What does it mean to use solar energy in an active way? allowing solar radiation to strike a solar cell which converts it to an electric current
What are intrinsic semiconductors? The PURE crystalline material has semiconducting properties
What are extrinsic semiconductors? The material is DOPED with a small amount of impurity of a similar material so that it may conduct
What does doping do to the band gap Decrease
What is a p-type doped semiconductor Doped with an element with fewer electrons; provides positive charge
What is an n-type doped semiconductor Doped with an element with more electrons; provides negative charge
What is the Fermi level average energy of unpaired electrons
Put n-type and p-type material together to get a __________ diode
What is an LED and what does it stand for? Light Emitting Diode; p-n jjunction
For an LED: ___________in, ____________out Electricity in, light out
For a solar cell: ______________ in, _________out Light in, electricity out
There is more/less than enough solar energy striking the planet to meet our planet's energy demands MORE
Created by: jkmccord11



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