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# 2009 Algebra 1 Vocab

### 2009 Algebra 1 SOL Vocabulary

Question | Answer |
---|---|

The x-value of an ordered pair that describes the vertical distance from the x-axis. | Abscissa |

The distance from x to the origin on the real number line. Because it represents distance, absolute value is never less than zero. | Absolute Value |

A sequence of steps that produce a desired outcome. It is often a step-by-step procedure. | Algorithm |

Numeric or algebraic input into an algorithm, nth function, or other defined function. | Argument |

A sequence in which successive terms have a common difference. It can be written as an=a1+(n-1)d where "an" is the nth term of the sequence, "a1" is the first term and "d" is the common difference. | Arithmetic Sequence |

The sum of the terms of an arithmetic sequence. | Arithmetic series |

A line or curve that approaches a given curve arbitrarily closely. | Asymptote |

An action performed on two quantities Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation are binary operations. | Binary Operation |

The sum or difference of two monomials. | Binomial |

A set is said to be closed under some operation if the operation on members of the set produces a member of the set. A set that is closed under an operation or collection of operations is said to satisfy a closure property. | Closure Property |

A fraction with one or more fractions embedded in the numerator and/or denominator. | Complex Fraction |

Any number that can be written in the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1. | Complex Number |

Combining two functions by taking the output of one and using it as the input of another. | Composition of Functions |

A system of equations that has at least one solution. | Consistent System (of Equations) |

The non-zero (usually denoted k) in a direct variation (y=k/x), an indirect variation (y= k/x ) or a joint variation (z=kxy). | Constant of Variation |

A function f is continuous at a point (x, y) if it is defined at that point and passes through that point without a break. | Continuous Function |

A function f is decreasing on an interval if and only if for every a and b in the interval, f(a) > f(b) whenever a < b. | Decreasing Function |

The degree of the term with greatest sum of powers. | Degree (of a polynomial) |

System of linear equations where one linear equation is a multiple of the other and, therefore, has an infinite number of solutions. | Dependent System of Equations |

A relationship between two variables, x and y, that can be expressed as y=kx where k is the constant of variation. | Direct Variation |

An algebraic expression related to the coefficients of a quadratic equation that can be used to determine the number and type of solutions to the equation. | Discriminant |

The set of independent values in a function; the set of first elements in ordered pairs in a function. | Domain |

For two given points (the foci), an ellipse is the locus of points such that the sum of the distances to each focus is constant. | Ellipse |

A rule that pairs elements from one set, called the domain, to elements from another set, called the range, in such a way that no first element is repeated. The result is a set of ordered pairs, (x, y) where each x value is unique. | Function |

Every polynomial equation with degree greater than zero has at least one root in the set of complex numbers. | Fundamental Theorem of Algebra |

Every natural number greater than 1 can be written as a unique product of prime numbers. | Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic |

A sequence in which consecutive terms have a common ratio. | Geometric Sequence |

The sum of the terms of a geometric sequence. | geometric Series |

For two given points (the foci), a hyperbola is the locus of points such that the difference between the distances to each focus is constant. | Hyperbola |

System of linear equations that has no solutions; parallel lines. | Inconsistent System of Equations |

A function f is increasing on an interval if and only if f(a) > f(b) for every a > b in the interval. | Increasing Function |

A consistent system of linear equations with only one solution. | Independent System of Equations |

Number indicating what root is being taken. | Index |

A relationship between two variables, x and y, that can be expressed as Y = k/x where k is the constant of variation. | Indirect (inverse) variation |

point where a curve crosses the x- or y-axis. | x-intercept and y-intercept |

A relationship that exists when a quantity varies directly with the product of two or more quantities y = kxy. | Joint Variation |

In a polynomial function of degree n, the leading coefficient is a n and the leading term is anxn. | Leading Coefficient |

A function in the form y = mx+b where m and b are constants. The graph of a linear function is a line. A linear equation has degree 1. | Linear Function |

An equation that contains more than one variable; an implicit equation; often mathematical formula. | Literal Equations |

A rectangular table of elements which may be numbers or any abstract quantities that can be added and multiplied; used to describe linear equations. | Matrix |

A product of constants and variables; a polynomial with one term. | Monomial |

a function where every value of y has a unique value for x. This function must passes the horizontal line test. | One-to-One function |

A value in a data set that is much higher or lower than the rest; a point which falls more than 1.5 times the interquartile range above the third quartile or below the first quartile. | Outlier |

A locus of points whose perpendicular distances to a line, called the directrix, and to a fixed point, called the focus, are equal. The graph of any quadratic function is one. | Parabola |

A function that consists of one or more functions, each with a limited or specified domain; when the pieces are graphed, on the same coordinate plane, the graph may or may not be continuous. | Piecewise Function |

a function that can be written as f(x) = a(n)x to the nth + a(n-1)x(n-1) + . . . | Polynomial Function |

A polynomial that cannot be factored over the real numbers further. | Prime Polynomial |

A formula that gives the solutions of the general quadratic equation ax(squared) + bx + c = 0. | Quadratic Formula |

A function that may be written f(x)=ax(squares) + bx + c. | Quadratic Function |

An expression of the form square root of r or the nth root of r where r is a number or expression x. | Radical (nth root) |

The possible values for the dependent variable in a function or relation. | Range (of a function) |

The difference between the maximum value and the minimum value in a data set. | Range (of a set of data) |

A function that can be written as R(x) = P(x)/Q(x) where P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials and Q(x) ≠ 0. | Rational Functions |

Linear regression is the process of obtaining the line of best fit. The relationship between two sets of data may be described with a line using some goodness-of-fit criterion. | Regression |

A number x such that P(x)=0. A polynomial of degree n has n roots. | Roots (of a polynomial) |

The steepness of a line going from left to right; rise over run; a constant rate of change. | Slope |

A polynomial expression with three terms | Trinomial |

A value of x for which f(x) = 0. | Zeros (of a function) |