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# RFC1 WGU EDU

### Study Guide Overview

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is quantitative research | Collection and analysis of numerical data |

What is qualitative research | Collection and analysis of narrative and visual data |

Quantitative Data Analysis | Identify Statistical Relationships |

Quantitative Hypothesis | Formulated based on theory or knowledge gained while reviewing literature |

Quantitative Beliefs | Live in a stable world that we can measure and make generalizations about |

Quantitative Scientific Method | Deductive Reasoning |

Quantitative Sample Size | Large |

Quantitative Approach: Correlation | Collect data to determine if a relationship exists |

Quantitative Approach: Causal-Comparative | Attempts to determine the cause or reason for existing differences *Different from experimental because the researcher determines the cause-effect relationship |

Cause | Influences behavior |

Effect | Change that Occurs |

Quantitative Approach: Experimental | independent variable is manipulated while others are controlled |

Internal Validity | Degree in which observed differences are direct result of manipulation of independent variable |

Increase internal validity | decrease external validity |

external validity | degree to which results are generalizable to other groups |

Random Sampling: Simple Random | Use a table of random numbers |

Random Sampling: Stratified Random Sampling | Divide population into separate levels, select from separate levels |

Random Sampling: Cluster Sample | Select Groups Randomly |

Random Sampling: Systematic Sampling | Using a list of population and selecting every Kth person |

Non-Random Sampling: Convenience Sampling | Selects whoever is there |

Non-Random Sampling: Purposive Sampling | Selecting a sample believed to be representative |

Non-Random Sampling: Quota | Sampling selection based on required number needed |

Qualitative Research Data Type | Categorical |

Qualitative Research Purpose | Gain understanding of underlying reasons and motives Search for patterns, themes, and holistic features |

Qualitative Hypothesis | Doesn't state hypothesis prior to study |

Qualitative Characteristics | Research methods evolve as understanding deepens Meaning is situated in a particular perspective Small Sample Size |

Qualitative Research Design: Advantages | Depth and detail creates openness simulates experiences Researcher knows and understands participants small # of participants Data collection in natural environment hypothesis evolves |

Qualitative Research Design: Disadvantages | Subjective not repeatable small sample not easy to generalize |

Qualitative Types of Research: Narrative Research | How different humans experience the world |

Qualitative Types of Research: Ethnographic Research | Study of cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in natural settings |

Qualitative Types of Research: Case Study | Focuses on bounded system or unit of study |

Hypothesis: Inductive | Generalization based upon observations |

Hypothesis: Deductive | Derived from theory and provides evidence that supports, expands, or even contracts a theory |

Qualitative Types of Research: Action Research Characteristics | Data Drives Action Seeks Change Personally Involved Reflective Seeks Continuous Change |

Action Research: Advantages | Provides immediate feedback |

Hypothesis: Null | No relationship or difference among variables |

Null Hypothesis: Type 1 error | false positive |

Null hypothesis: Type 2 error | false negative |

Valid | they measure what they are intended to measure |

Reliable | Results should be the same when done by different people |

Independent Variable | Cause |

Dependent Variable | Effect |

Nominal Variable | Describes Categorical Data |

Quantitative Variable: Ordinal | Rank order with unequal units |

Quantitative Variable: Interval | Rank order with equal intervals |

Quantitative Variable: Ratio | Characteristics of the other levels but also true zero point |

Action Research: Disadvantages | Only valuable to those conducting it Results can't be applied in other settings May not produce valid results |

Primary Resource | First Hand Account |

Secondary Resource | Second Hand Information |

Plagiarism | No more than 30% can be directly quoted |

Qualitative Instruments | interviews and observations |

Quantitative Instruments | Paper/Pencil OR electronic |

Frequency | Number of times something occurs |

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency | Mean, Median, Mode |

Mean | appropriate for measuring interval or ratio data |

Mode | Appropriate for measuring nominal data |

Median | Appropriate for measuring ordinal data |

Measures of Variability | Range, Quartile Deviation |

Range | Difference between highest and lowest scores |

Quartile Deviation | 1/2 the difference between the upper and lower quartile |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Cognitive Tests | thinking ability |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests | Measure attitude, emotion, interest, personality |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: \ Affective Tests: Likert Scale | strongly agree - strongly disagree |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Semantic Scale | Fair unfair 3 -3 |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Rating Scales | Always Almost Always Sometimes |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Thurstone Scale and Guttman Scale | used to measure attitude |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Interest Inventory | used to measure personal likes |

Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Projective Tests | developed to eliminate some of the concerns with self report measures |

Variance | Amount of spread among scores |

Standard Deviation | Square root of the variance |

Normal Curve | 50% of scores above mean and 50% below & Measures of Central Tendency have the same value |

Skewed | not normally distributed |

Standard Score | Uses standard deviation units to express how far an individual's score is from the mean |

T-Score | Calculated by multiplying a z-score by 10 and adding 50 |

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Relationship: Pearson r | calculate relationship for interval or ratio data |

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Relationship: Spearman rho | calculate relationships with ordinal data |

Inferential Statistics | determine how likely it will that results obtained from a sample are going to be obtained from the entire population |

Descriptive Statistics | helps researchers know how often or how frequent a score will occur |

Inferential Statistics | helps researchers know if they can generalize to a population |

Inferential Statistics: t-Test | used to determine whether 2 groups of scores are significantly different from one another Compares the observed differences between means with the expected differences |

Inferential Statistics: ANOVA | parametric test used to determine whether scores from 2 or more groups are significantly different at a selected probability level total variance of scores comes from variance between groups and variance within groups |

Quantitative Purposes | Generalize Results Describe Current Condition Investigate Relationships Study Cause/Effect Relationships Identify Statistical Relationships |

Quantitative Characteristics | Describes Predicts Numerical Data Controls Variables of Interest |

Quantitative Research Topic | Topic statement describes the variables of interest, relations among those variables, and aspects of the sample |

Quantitative Research Advantages | Broader STudy Large Sample Size Objectivity Replicable Personal Bias Avoided Validity LIttle time with participants Numerical Data Researcher Controls Environment |

Quantitative Research Disadvantages | Narrow Data Set No Narrative Data Collected out of context |

Literature Review: Purpose | ensure that you don't duplicate an existing study helps frame study helps identify research strategies |

Literature Review: Steps | 1. make a list of keywords 2. locate primary sources 3. evaluate source 4. abstract sources 5. analyze and organize sources 6. write review |

Created by:
klehman