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Cardiac Function

Clinical Chemistry Cardiac Function

What does the mitral valve do? Mitral valve connects the upper and lower chamber on the left side
What is the heart? Hollow, muscular organ approximately the size of a fist
How much does the average heart weigh and how long is it? Average heart weighs 325g in men and 275g in women. It is approximately 12 cm in length
Where is the heart located? Mid section of chest cavity between lower lobes of each lung and slightly to the left of sternum.
How is the heart encapsulated? Enclosed in a double layered fibrous membrane called the pericardium
Pericardium is made up of 2 layers, what are these layers? What seperates these layers and what is its function? Visceral pericardium is the inner layer and the parietal pericardium is the outer layer. These layers are separated by pericardial fluid that prevents friction when the heart beats.
Divided into 2 upper and 2 lower chambers, what are these chambers called? 2 upper are atrium and 2 lower are ventricles.
What are the 3 layers of the heart? Epicardium is the outer layer, Myocardium is the middle layer. It is the most important because it produces the enzymes that are tested for to look for AMI. Endocardium is the inner layer.
What is the main function of the heart? To pump blood to organs, to deliver oxygen needed and to remove wastes from the tissues
What are the symptoms of Cardiovascular Disease? Dyspnea, Chest pain, Palpitations, Syncope, Edema, Cyanosis, and Fatigue
What are Congenital Cardiovascular defects? Abnormalites arising from the abnormal formation of the heart or its major blood vessels.
What are the symptoms of Congenital Cardiovascular defects? Cyanosis, Pulmonary hypertension, Clubbing of the fingers, Embolism, Reduced growth, and Syncope.
What are the closely associated factors of Congenital Cardiovascular defects? Maternal rubella infections, Maternal alcohol abuse, drug treatment and radiation, and certain genetic and chromosomal abnormalities.
Congenital Cardiovascular defects, CCVDs, include: Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of the great arteries, Atrioventricular septal defects, coarction of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrom, and ventricular septal defects (VSDs).
What is heart failure? A clinical syndrome that results from and structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood.
What is it when fluid accumulates in lungs producing pulmonary edema and reduced output of blood to systemic circulation Heart failure
What are the most common causes of Heart failure? Coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, inflammatory heart disease, valvular disease, and cardiac arrhythmias.
What are acute coronary syndromes a general term used to describe: angina, reversible tissue injury, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and extensive tissue necrosis.
What are the symptoms of acute coronary syndromes? chest pain, referred pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, diaphoresis, and lightheadedness
What is atherosclerosis? the thickening and hardening of the artery walls caused by deposits of cholesterol-lipid-calcium plaque in the lining of the arteries.
What are the mechanisms that lead to the cellular injury in atherosclerosis? bacterial infection, hyperlipidemia, glycosylated products seen in diabetes mellitus, and proinflammatory cytokines, among others.
What is ischemia? reduced blood supply to the heart
What are the predisposing factors of atherosclerosis? age, sex, family history, dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, and diabetes mellitus.
What is hypertension? Persistent systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mmHg and diastolic of at least 90 mmHg or BP that is controlled to guideline-recommended levels using antihypertensive medications.
What are some types of hypertensive heart diseases? Left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and CHF, caused by direct or indirect affects of elevated BP.
What are the most common heart diseases caused by infectious agents? Rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, pericarditis
What is rheumatic heart disease? a serious complication of rheumatic fever. It develops in approx. 3% of group A B-hemolytic streptococcal infection in children.
What is infective endocarditis? an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart that is caused by several microorganisms and fungi. Strep and Staph are common bacterial causes in which teh organism attaches to the endocardium, invades the valves, and forms vegatations that interfer
What is pericarditis a condition of inflammation of the pericardium,can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorder, or other diseases.
What is myocardial infarction? myocardial necrosis due to prolonged ischemia and it is usually categorized by the size of the infarct.
What is characteristic of AMI? the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
What is characteristic of a healed MI? scar tissue without cellular infiltration, a process that usually takes 5-6 weeks.
What are the cardiac proteins? myoglobin, cardiac troponins, and cardiac myosin light chains.
What is myoglobin? An oxygen-binding heme protein that is present in both cardiac and skeletal muscle.
Describe the progression of myoglobin. rises as early as 1-4 hrs after symptoms, found in all AMI patients between 6-9 hours, and returns to baseline within 18-24 hours.
What is troponin? a complex of three proteins that bind to the thin filament of cardiac and skeletal muscle.
What is the major function of troponins? bind calcium and regulate muscle contraction.
Describe the progression of troponins. rise 4-10 hrs after symptoms, peak at 12-48 hrs, and remain elevated for 4-10 days.
What does inflammation play a role in? atherogenesis, atherosclerotic plaque formation, and acute coronary syndrome.
What is high-sensitivity C-reactive protein? an acute-phase protein produced by the liver in response to injury, infection, and inflammation.
What is pregnancy associated plasma protein A? PAPP-A is a zinc binding protein found in high serum concentrations of women in advanced stages of pregnancy.
What is Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2? platelet-activating factor acetyl-hydrolase, is an enzyme associated with the small, dense LDL cholesterol particles. It circulates mainly bound to LDL and HDL,and studies have shown an increased risk for heart disease and stroke.
Created by: Meldon