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Ch5 Chemistry Vocab

electron configuration, electron-dot structure, main energy levels. etc.

electron-dot structure Element's symbol surrounded by dots represents valence electrons. (counter-clockwise)
valence electrons The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element. (determined vertically)
principal quantum number assigned by the quantum mechanical model to indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals. (n)
principal energy level 7 major energy levels of an atom
energy sublevels energy levels in a principal energy level. (spdf)
electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. (no elevator, don't want to drag stuff upstairs)
Pauli exclusion principle states that a max of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins.
Hund's rule (everyone gets their own room before you start doubling up.)
electromagnetic radiation wavelike energy. Described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed.
wavelength the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave. expressed in " "-meters. (radiation from microwave harming baby)
frequency the number of waves that pass a given point per second. (nu)
amplitude height of wave from origin to crest of origin to trough.
electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves,infrared,ultraviolet,x rays,gamma rays)
quantum the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
Planck's constant 6.626*10-34 J*s, J is joule.(sounds like Plank)
photoelectric effect photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it. (metal tables blinding you)
photon a massless particle that carries a quantum of energy.
atomic emission spectrum a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors.
ground state the lowest allowable energy state of an atom.
quantum number the number assigned to each orbit of an electron.
de Broglie equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its freguency, its mass, and Planck's constant.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle it is impossible to know both velocity and position of a particle at the same time.
quantum mechanical model of the atom atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves.
atomic orbital 3-D region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location.
Created by: bpfizenmaier