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Science 11/8/11

Chapter 3: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume solid
state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape of its own liquid
state of matter that has no definite shape and no definite volume gas
What causes a solid to have a definite shape and volume? The fixed closely packed arrangement of particles
solids that are made up of crystals crystalline solid
in this type of solid, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern amorphous solid
Why causes a liquid to not have a definite shape? the particles are free to move
another name for a liquid; "a substance that flows" fluid
the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together surface tension
a liquid's resistance to flowing viscosity
Why does a gas not have a definite shape or volume? As they move, the particles spread apart, filling all of the space available.
the change in state from a solid to a liquid melting
the change in state from a liquid to a solid freezing
the change in state from a liquid to a gas (general) vaporization
the specific point at which melting occurs melting point
How do solids melt at their melting point? the particles are vibrating so fast that they break free from their fixed positions
What happens at a liquid's freezing temperature? the particles are moving so slowly that they begin to form regular patterns
When does vaporization take place? when the particles of a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas
vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid evaporation
vaprization that takes place below its surface as well as at the surface boiling
the temperature at which a liquid boils boiling point
the opposite of vaporization condensation
When does condensation occur? when particles in a gas loss enough thermal energy to form a liquid
the change in state from a solid to a gas sublimation
What happens during sublimation? particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas
What is "dry ice"? solid carbon dioxide (CO 2)
What is it helpful to know when working with a gas? its volume, temperature, and pressure
the amount of space that matter fills volume
What is the volume of a gas? it is the same as the volume of its container?
Why is the volume of a gas the same as the volume of its container? gas particles move and fill the space available
the force of its outward push divided by thee area of the walls of the container pressure
How do you calculate pressure? force/area
Why does a ball leak even when it has a tiny hole? the higher the pressure inside the ball results in gas particles hitting the inner surface of the ball more often. Therefore, gas particles inside the ball reach the hole and escape more often than gas particles outside the ball reach the hole and enter
he found that when the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of the gas decreases. When the pressure is decreased, the volume increases. Boyle's law
What is the relationship between temperature and pressure? When the temperature of a gas at a constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas increases. When the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas decreases.
he found that when the temperature of a gas increased at constant pressure, its volume increases. When the temperature of a gas is decreased at constant pressure, then volume decreases. Charles's law
Created by: NeonGlitterGurl