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Chemistry: Unit #3

Chem 1015 Exam 3

Kinetic Molecular Theory Predicts the correct behavior for most gases under many conditions.
The Kinetic Molecular Theory makes the following assumptions: 1. Gas is a collection of particles in constant, straight lined motion. 2. Gas particles do not attract or repel each other- they do not interact. 3. There is a lot of space b/t gas particles. 4. As temp. inc., particles move faster and have more energ
Properties of gases Are compressible, assume the shape and volume of their container, and have low densities in comparison w/ liquids and solids.
What is pressure? Pressure is the result of the constant collisions b/t the atoms of molecules in a gas and the surfaces around them. Pressure = Force / Area
Boyle's Law The volume of a gas and its pressure are inversely proportional. P1 V1 = P2 V2
Charles's Law The volume of a gas and its Kelvin temperature are directly proportional. V1/T1 = V2/T2
Combined Gas Law Used for a sample of gases under two different sets of conditions. P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Avogadro's Law The volume of a gas and the amount of the gas in moles (n) are directly proportional. V1/n1 = V2/n2
The Ideal Gas Law Pressure, volume, temperature, and moles. PV = nRT (where R is constant .0821 L.atm/mol.K
Molar Mass Mass (m)/Moles (n)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Ptot = Pa + Pb + Pc + ...
In standard pressure conditions, what is the volume of 1 mol? 1 mol : 22.4 L
What is stoichiometry? Numerical relationship b/t chemical quantities in a balanced chemical equation.
Mass-to-Mass Conversions Mass A --> Moles A --> Moles B --> Mass B
What is the limiting reactant? The reactant that makes the least amount of product. The reactant is completely consumed in a reaction.
What is the theoretical yield? The amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction based on the amount of limiting reactant.
What is the actual yield? The amount of product actually produced by a chemical reaction.
How do you determine the percent yield? Actual yield/Theoretical yield x 100%
What is the enthalpy of reaction? The amount of thermal energy that flows when a reaction occurs at constant pressure. (delta H rxn) When this is negative, the reaction is exothermic. When this is positive, the reaction is endothermic.
What do you do when solving stoichiometry involving delta H? You use the solution map: g --> mol --> kJ
What is a chemical reaction? The transformation of one or more substances into different substances.
What are gas evolution reactions? Reactions that occur in liquids and form a gas.
What are combustion reactions? In which a substance reacts with oxygen, emitting heat, and forming one or more oxygen-containing compounds.
What are oxidation-reduction reactions? In which electrons are transferred from one substance to another.
What are precipitation reactions? Form solid substances in water.
Evidence of a chemical reaction Color changes, formation of a solid, formation of a gas, heat absorption/emission, or light emission.
What are the reactants in a chemical equation? The substances on the left side of the equation.
What are the products in a chemical reaction? The substances on the right side of the equation.
What makes an equation balanced? Numbers of each type of atom on both sides of the equation are equal.
What is an aqueous solution? A homogeneous mixture of a substance with water.
What makes a compound soluble? If in a particular liquid it dissolves in that liquid it is soluble.
What is the key to predicting precipitation reactions? Understanding that only insoluble compounds form precipitates.
Created by: reed0370