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O Chem

First Midterm for Organic Chemistry Unit 1

What types of organic reactions require heating? Those that are very slow at room temperature, (Endothermic)
What types of organic reactions require cooling? Those that are exothermic at room temperature
In what manner do liquids boil when heated in laboratory glassware? They tend to bump
Why is the addition of boiling stone to a hot liquid ill-advised? The hot liquid may suddenly boil, likely erupting from the flask
What manner of stirring makes the use of boiling stones unnecessary Magnetic stirring
Why should one pour a flammable liquid only after all hot heating devices have been removed from the work area? The contact with a hot heating device and liquid at it's flash point exceeded the liquid could ignite
Why is is unwise to heat a flammable liquid in an open container on a hot plate. The hot plate's thermostat may provide an ignition source resulting in a fire
What are the features of a typical aluminum heating block? Openings to accommodate: 1.Reaction tubes 2.Reaction vials 3.Round-bottomed flasks 4.a thermometer
Under what circumstances are cooling baths used? When it is desirable to: 1.regulate an exothermic reaction 2.cool a reaction mixture prior to a subsequent part of the procedure 3.promote complete crystallization
What are common cooling systems? 1. cold tap water 2. an ice-water mixture
Does the use of crushed ice alone provide efficient cooling? No, since air pockets do not conduct heat very well.
Why do most organic reactions require a period of heating? They are too slow at room temperature
What is meant by the term 'refluxing' This term refers to the process of boiling a sol'n in such a way that the volatile components are condensed thereby allowing them to return to the reaction flask
what types of condensers are commonly used as part of a reflux apparatus 1. water jacketed condensers( used when boiling at <150 degrees c) 2. air jacketed condensers( used when boiling at <100 degrees c)
What is a likely consequence of refluxing too vigorously? The capacity of the condenser will be exceeded resulting in the loss of volatile reagents and/or products
How are liquids added to the flask of the reflux apparatus? How are solids added to the flask? Conical funnels are used to add liquids; powder funnels are used to add solids.
What steps constitute a typical solid-liquid extraction? 1.add solid mixture to a suitable flask 2.add extraction solvent 3.outfitting the flask for heating under reflux 4.reflux the suspension 5.cool the suspension 6.isolate filtrate by gravity filtration 7.remove solvent by evaporation
What characterizes an effective solid-liquid extraction solvent? 1. desired component is highly soluble in the solvent while other components are not. 2.solvent should be chemically inert 3.After extraction, solvent should be readily separable from the solute.
What are the four principles of weak intermolecular interactions? What are their relative strengths? 1.hydrogen bonding(strongest) 2.dipole-dipole interactions 3.dipole-induced dipole interactions 4.induced dipole-induced dipole interactions(Weakest)
What characterizes the reorganization of molecules as a crystalline sample melts? The molecules reorganize from fixed, orderly arrays in solids to random motion in liquids
What aspects about a compound can be established from its melting point? 1.identity 2.purity
Created by: jackscam