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Physics RAD math

midterm physics BSHP

improper handling or processing can cause what on processed radiographs? Artifacts
Heat _____ the fog of a radiograph increases
When fog increases on a radiograph it reduces ______ contrast
Radiographic film should not be stored at temps lower that _____ degrees F 68
With higher storage temps the longer the storage the more loss ___________ that results from the _______ in _____ of contrast; increase; fog
Radiographs should be kept at a temp of _______ degrees F or _____ degrees C 50; 10
Radiographs should be stored where? In refrigerated storage
Storage for a year or longer is acceptable if _____ it's maintained at a temp of 50 degrees F
Storage in humidity over 60% _______ contrast because of ____ fog reduces; increased
_________ are possible when relative humidity dips below ______ static artifacts; 40%
if light exposes a film ______ is produced a gross, obvious artifact
_____ creates an artifact by increasing fog and reducing contrast. ionizing radiation
Film fog is dull, uniform optical density that appears if the film has been exposed to light , xrays,heat,or humidity
the fog level for unprocessed film is 0.2mR
Darkrooms are lined with____ lead
Film is more sensitive after/before (choose one) an exposure? Why? after; an exposure post exposure has an immediate effect on optical density
monthly turnover of film requires ______ the lead shielding is required than ____ 4 times; weekly turnover
boxes of film should be stored ____ rather than ____ because ____ on edge; laying them flat; when stored on edge they are less likely to wrap,stick to eachother, or suffer from pressure.
storage of film should be sequenced how? Oldest film is used first
what's the equation for total filtration? inherent filtration + added filtration
what's the equation for grid surface x-ray absorption? width of grid strip/width of grid strip +width of interspace all x 100
grid with 50-um strips and 350-um interspace what percentage will be absorbed by it's entire surface? 50um-350um+50um = 0.125 * 100 = 12.5%
lead strips 40um wide separated by interspaces 300um wide what percent is absorbed? 40um/300um+40um= 40um/340um=0.118*100 = 11.8%
equation for grid ratio height of grid strip/thickness of interspace
are grid strips radiopaque or radiolucent? radiopaque
grid strips alternate with _______ material called ______ radiolucent; interspace material
xrays that exit the patient and strike the radiopaque grid strips are ____ and _____ the image receptor absorbed; do not reach
what is grid frequency? the number of grid strips per centimeter
grids with high frequency show ____ grid lines compared to low frequency grids which are the opposite less distinct
if grid strip width is constant the higher the frequency of of a grid the ______ it's interspace must be and the ______ the grid ratio. thinner; higher
higher frequency grids require _____ of technique and results in ____ higher technique; increased patient dose
most common grid frequency range is in the rang of ___to ___ 25;45 per centimeter
equation for grid frequency? 10,000um (per cm) /thickness of grid strip+width of interspace material (per line pair)
what id the grid frequency of a grid that has a grid width of 30um and an interspace width of 300um? 10,000/300+30 = 10,000/330= 30.3
most grids consist of what kind of interspace material? aluminum or plastic fiber
what interspace material has a low atomic number causing it to show less visible grid lines and have some selective filtration of scatter x-rays not absorbed? aluminum
high frequency grids are more effective than low ones because? the angle of deviation is smaller
what is nonhygroscopic? what is the term used for in grids? doesn't absorb moisture ; aluminum (used in grid interspace)
what is the principle use of a grid? improve contrast
bucky factor values no grid; 5:1, 8:1, 12:1, 16:1 1,2,4,5,6
Created by: b.xray