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"other characteristics" defined by job specification personality traits
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) gov provides background info for analyzing jobs(not applicable for new economy so O*NET Online is used)
Occupational Information Network (O*NET) generalizes across jobs to describe the abilities, work styles, work activities, and work context for 1000 broadly defined occupations
information input of (PAQ) where and how a worker gets information need to perform the job
mental processes (PAQ) the reasoning, decision making, planning and info processing activities involved in performing a job
work output (PAQ) the physical activities, tools,and devices used by the worker to perform the job
job context (PAQ) physical and social context where job is performed
what is job analysis a building block for work redesign, HR planning, selection, training, performance appraisal, career planning, job evaluation
skill variety the degree to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved
task identity the degree to which a job requires completing a "whole" piece of work from beginning to end
task significance the extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of others
autonomy the degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out
telework doing one's work away from a centrally located office (best for managerial, professional, or sales jobs)
work flow design the process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service
job a set of related duties
position the set of duties (job) performed by a particular person
job analysis the process of getting detailed information about jobs
job description a list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails
job specification a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform a particular job
position analysis (PAQ) A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs
fleishman job analysis system job analysis technique that asks subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job
job design the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job
industrial engineering the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiently
job enlargement broadening the types of tasks performed in a job
job extension enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job w/a wider range of tasks
job rotation enlarging jobs by moving employees among several different jobs
job enrichment empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs
flextime a scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the organization
job sharing a work option in which 2 part-time employees carry out the tasks associated w/a single job
ergonomics the study of the interface btwn individuals' physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment
phased-retirement keep older workers while reducing their number of hours
lead-the-market pay strategies pay more than current market wages for a job
public employment agencies are usually for ______collar markets blue collar markets
executive search firm (ESF) private employment agencies, headhunters, find new jobs for ppl almost exclusively already employed (white-collar market)
Fair Credit Reporting Act requires employers to obtain a candidate's consent before using a 3rd party to check the candidate's credit history
banding treats a range of scores as similar. within the set of "tied" scores, employers give preference to underrepresented groups
cognitive ability ability to use written and spoken language, solving math problems, using logic to solve problems
request for proposal (RFP) a document outlining the type of service needed, the type and number of references need, the number of employees to be trained, the date by which the training is to be completed, and the date by which the proposals should be received. indicates funding.
vendors submit proposals to organizations that they think they'll be able to provide services to based upon RFP
training administration done by HR professional. includes activities before, during, and after training sessions
cultural immersion sending employees directly into the communities where they have to interact with persons from diff cultures, races, and nationalities
strategic purpose of performance management helps the organization achieve its business goals
administrative purpose of performance management ways in which organization use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs
developmental purpose of performance management basis for the developing employees' knowledge and skills
validity the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure
contamination information that's gathered but is irrelevant
reliability consistency of results
interrater reliability consistency of results when more than one person measures performance
alternation ranking manager picks the best employee and then the worst. then the second best, then second worst
test-retest reliability consistency of results over time
acceptability whether or not a measure is valid and reliable
behaviorism individuals' future behavior is determined by their past experiences
2 kinds of TQM 1.subjective feedback: about employees' qualities 2.objective feedback: based on the work process(from statistical quality control methods-->use charts to detail causes of probs, measures of performance and relationships btwn work-related variables)
contrast errors if the rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees
distributional errors raters tend to use only one part of a rating scale
leniency reviewer rates everyone near the top of the scale
halo error rating employees positively in all areas because of strong performance observed in one area
horns error rating employees negatively in all areas b/c of weak performance observed in one area
tell-and-sell approach managers tell the employees their ratings and then justify those ratings
tell-and-listen managers tell employees their ratings and then let the employees explain their side of the story
problem-solving (superior!)managers and employees manager and reviewed employee work together to solve performance problems in an atmosphere of respect and encouragement
performance measurements should evaluate ______and_________not _______ evaluate: behaviors and results, not: traits
how do you improve the performance of an employee with low ability and low motivation (deadwood) withhold pay increases, demotion, firing, specific direct feedback on performance probs
how do you improve the performance of an employee with high ability and low motivation (misdirected effort) coaching, frequent performance feedback, goal setting, training, restructured job assignment
how do you improve the performance of an employee with high ability and high motivation (solid performers) reward good performance, identify development opportunities, provide feedback
how do you improve the performance of an employee with low ability and high motivation (underutilizers) feedback, provide counseling, over training for needed skills or knowledge, use team building, manage stress levels
personnel selection the process through which organizations make decisions about who will or will not join the organization
reliability the extent to which a measurement is free from random error
validity the extent to which performance on a measure (such as a test score) is related to what the measure is designed to assess (such as job performance)
criterion-related validity a measure of validity based on showing a substantial correlation btwn test scores and job performance scores
predictive validation research that uses the test scores of all applicants and looks for a relationship btwn the scores and future performance of the applicants who were hired
concurrent validation research that consists of administering a test to ppl who currently hold a job, then comparing their scores to existing measures of job performance
content validity consistency btwn the test items or problems and the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job
construct validity consistency btwn a high score on a test and high level of a construct such as intelligence or leadership ability, as well as btwn mastery of this construct and successful performance of the job
generalizable valid in other contexts in which the selection method was developed
utility the extent to which something provides economic value greater than its cost
immigration reform and control act of 1986 federal law requiring employers to verify and maintain records on applicants' legal rights to work in the US
aptitude tests tests that assess how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilities
achievement tests tests that measure a person's existing knowledge and skills
assessment center a wide variety of specific selection programs that use multiple selection methods to rate applicants or job incumbents on their management potential
nondirective interview a selection interview in which the interviewer has great discretion in choosing questions to ask each candidate
structured interview a selection interview that consists of a predetermined set of questions for the interviewer to ask
situational interview a structured interview in which the interviewer describes a situation likely to arise on the job, then asks the candidate what he or she would do in that situation
behavioral description interview (BDI) a structured interview in which the interviewer asks the candidate to describe how he or she handled a type of situation in the past
panel interview selection interview in which several members of the organization meet to interview each candidate
multiple-hurdle model process of arriving at a selection decision by eliminating some candidates at each stage of the selection process
compensatory model process of arriving at a selection decision in which a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another
Created by: skraitup22