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Stack #73068

QuestionAnswer
hydrogen most abundant element in the universe
hydrogen colorless, odorless, tasteless; flammable, volatile
hydrogen simplest element
protium, dueterium, tritium 3 isotopes of hydrogen
steam reforming making of steam by producing hydrogen
electrolysis sending an electric current through water
steam reforming & petroleum refining 2 commercial methods of preparing hydrogen
uses of hydrogen synthesis of ammonia, production of hydrogenated vegetable oil, production of margarine
hydrogenation the addtion of hydrogen to double(or triple) bonds
oxygen most abundant element in the earth's crust; essential for metabolism
O_2 & O_3 two allotropes of oxygen
allotrope two or more forms of the same element that differ in their properties but exist in the same physical state
properties of oxygen odorless, tasteless, colorless, slightly magnetic
property of O_2 light blue in color
property of O_3 (ozone) toxic, pungent odor
photosynthesis & electrolysis of water preparations of oxygen
reactions of oxygen forms compounds with all the elements except for the noble gases
oxide O 2-
peroxide O_2 2-
superoxide O_2 1-
uses of oxygen manufacture of steel, hospitals, synthesis of industrial chemicals, welding, liquid-fueled rockets
uses of ozone sometimes used in place of chlorine or chlorine compounds to purify drinking water; deoderizes air and sewage gases and bleach textiles, waxes, and oils
nitrogen major component of air: makes up 78% of the air
nitrogen produced from air, making it the 3rd-ranking chemical in the U.S.
Saltpeter & Chile saltpeter chief sources of nitrogen
nitrogen found in all living things in the form of proteins and amino acids
properties of nitrogen tasteless, colorless, odorless; very unreactive as an element because of triple bonds
uses of nitrogen production of ammonia for fertilizers; prevents oxidation and the growth of mold of foods; used in explosives and as fuels
nitrogen fixation the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a form that can be used by plants
symbiotic mutually beneficial
nitrogen fertilizers synthetic urea, liquid ammonia, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium dihydrogen
properties of ammonia(NH_3) a colorless gas with an irritating odor; used for fertilizers
Haber process an industrial nitrogen fixation process which produces ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen
uses of ammonia smelling salts
danger of ammonia inhaling excessive amounts of this have serious effects, even resulting in death
N_2_O (nitrous oxide) colorless gas with a pleasant odor and sweet taste; used as a propellant in canned whipped cream; used as an anesthetic in minor surgery(laughing gas)
NO_2 (nitrogen dioxide) toxic brownish gas with a choking odor
NaNO_2 (sodium nitrite) used to preserve meat; gives meat the deep red color; prevents food poisoning
nitrites in stomach they mix with the gastric juices to form nitric oxide(NO) which kills bacteria in acidic solutions
HNO_3 (nitric acid) used in fertilizers, dyes, drugs, explosives, photoengraving processes
Ostwald process the commercial method for producing nitric acid by the catalyzed reaction of ammonia with oxygen
C3_H5_N3_O9 (nitroglycerin) unstable liquid
dynamite the result of nitroglycerin absorbed into porous silica
phosphorus the tenth most abundant element in the earth's crust
phosphorus sixth most abundant element in the human body; found in DNA and RNA, in the skeletal mineral matter, tooth enamel, and in the blood
white phosphorus transparent, waxy crystalline, tetrahedral, highly toxic(causes severe gastrointestinal irritation, liver damage, convulsions, & death); insoluble, contact with skin causes very painful and slow-healing burns
red phosporus more stable; polymeric form; undergoes same reactions as white phosphorus but at higher temperatures
commercial method of preparing phosphorus this element is obtained from phosphate rock by heating it to more than 1000'C with coke(carbon) and silica sand; byproduct is slag(gravel)
uses of phosphorus matches, military ammunition, tracer bullets, smoke bombs
phosphoric reactions with halogens forms trihalide PX_3 or pentahalide PX_5
phosphoric reactions with oxygen exist as both crystalline and molecular
phosphoric reactions with sulfur P4_S3(phosphorus trisulfide) is formed when P4 is heated with sulfur; in safety matches, the rough surfaces is red phosphorus
phosphates very important in fertilizers
H3_PO4 (phosphoric acid) one of the most important industrial chemicals in the U.S.; nontoxic, pleasant sour taste like citric acid; used in the carbonated soft drink industry; emulsifier
organophosphates are toxic to insects and are widely used to protect food crops from pests
melathion one of the most important organophosphates
ATP(adenosine triphosphate) an extremely important phosphate that serves as the energy carrier of the cell
sulfur comprises only about 0.05% of the earth's crust; source of element is gypsum; this element also occurs in many proteins such as those composing hair
rhombic, monoclinic & plastic sulfur 3 allotropes of sulfur
rhombic sulfur puckered, ring-shaped molecule of 8 sulfur atoms; yellow, tastless, odorless solid which is insoluble in water
monoclinic crystals(sulfur) composed of 8 sulfur atoms; low viscosity, pale yellow, transparent liquid
plastic sulfur rubbery substance that's formed when liquid sulfur is cooled quickly by being poured into cold water
Frasch process a process for mining sulfur using super-heated water
uses of sulfur used mainly for the production of sulfuric acid(H2_SO4); used for vulcanization of rubber, preparation of insecticides, fungicides, pharmaceuticals, gunpowder, matches, dyes, photographic materials, textiles
H2_SO4 (sulfuric acid) the most important chemical in the U.S.; used in the production of fibers, plastics, dyes, paints & detergents; also used in the refining of petroleum and the refining of metals
SO_2 (sulfur dioxide) toxic colorless gas with apungent odor; major component of air pollution(to prevent pollution, use a scrubber)
uses of sulfur dioxide bleaching agent in paper, oils and starches; food additive to stop browning; fungicide for grapevines
H2_S (hydrogen sulfide) has odor of rotten eggs, highly toxic gas, colorless; high concentrations lead to collapse, coma, or death; its presence in the atmosphere in small quantities is demonstrated by the tarnishing of silver
mercaptans & thiols skunks(example); organic materials containing the -SH group(sulfhydryl group)
CS_2 (carbon disulfide) colorless flammable liquid formed by the heating of carbon and sulfur
Na2_S2_O3 (sodium thiosulfate) is used on developing black-and-white film
halogens (salt formers) too reactive to be found naturally; nonmetallic elements; highly reactive & toxic; furthur down the column the toxicity decreases
seawater chlorine, bromine & iodine are found in this
fluorspar & cryolite fluorine is found in these two
fluorine most toxic; most reactive of any element; pale yellow gas
preparation of fluorine 2-step process: H2_SO4 + CaF2 = 2 HF + CaSO4 2 HF (electric current) = H2 + F2
uses of fluorine fluoridation of water; anticavity treatment; uranium fuel; manufacture of refrigerants; Teflon; perfluorocarbons; high-powered lasers
chlorine yellow-green gas; one of the most versatile elements; denser than the air; has a choking and irritating odor
preparation of chlorine 2NaCl (electric currect) = 2 Na + Cl2 -OR- 4 HCl + MnO_2 = 2 H2_O + MnCl2 + Cl2
uses of chlorine bleaching agent in wood pulp, paper & textile industry; disinfectants; water purifications; household bleach[NaOCl-sodium hypochlorite]; PVC; pesticides, herbicides, plastics & medicine
bromine reddish brown liquid
preparation of bromine 2 NaBr + Cl2 = 2 NaCl + Br2
uses of bromine firefighting chemical; medicines, photographic film; some perfluorocarbons; added to gasoline to prevent lead deposits
iodine least toxic; dark violent vapor/dark metallic solid
preparation of iodine 2 H2_SO4 + MnO2 + 2 NaI = I2 + MnSO4 + Na2_SO4 + 2 H2_O
Created by: MP487