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Gen Chem part 2 ch 4

non electorlytes do not conduct electricity
acids: 1. ionize when dissolved in water. 2. the molecules are pulled apart by their attraction for the water when acids ionize, they form H+ cations and also anions
strong acids: 1.one that completely ionizes in solution. 2. Acids that ionize virtually 100% are called strong acids. 3. Example: Hcl
weak acids: 1. do not completely ionize in water. 2.Acids that only ionize a small percentage are called weak acids 3. Example: HF
weak acids are classified as? weak acids are classified as weak electrolytes.
weak electrolyte conduct electricity only weakly.
electrolyte solutions: Electrolyte solutions all contain ions dissolved in the water ionic compounds are electrolytes because they dissociate into their ions when they dissolve
non electrolyte solutions: Nonelectrolyte solutions contain whole molecules dissolved in the water generally, molecular compounds do not ionize when they dissolve in water the notable exception being molecular acids
strong electrolyte Strong electrolytes are materials that dissolve completely as ions ionic compounds and strong acids their solutions conduct electricity well
weak electrolyte Weak electrolytes are materials that dissolve mostly as molecules, but partially as ions weak acids their solutions conduct electricity, but not well
dissociation When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the anions and cations are separated from each other. This is called dissociation.
ionizes When strong acids dissolve in water, the molecule ionizes into H+ and anions
soluble and insoluble: Compounds that dissolve in a solvent are said to be soluble, where as those that do not are said to be insoluble
when an ionic compound dissolves in water, the resulting solution contains= 1.not the intact ionic compound itself, but its components ions dissolved in water. 2. However, not all ionic compounds dissolve in water.
know the solubility rules on page 149!
hard water and soft water hard water: has high calcium and perhaps Mg. soft water- has more sodium in it. Tastes better but not better for you!
precipitating reactions: 1.reactions in which a solid forms when we mix two solutions reactions between aqueous solutions of ionic.compounds produce an ionic compound that is INSOLUBLE IN WATER the insoluble product is called a precipitate.2.Produces something INSOLUBLE in water.
**only insoluble compounds form percipitates. In a percipitation reaction, 2 solutions containing soluble compunds combine and an insoluble coumpound percipitates.
Process for Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction (steps 1 and 2) 1.Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has 2.Determine formulas of possible products exchange ions (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from other balance charges of combined ions to get formula of each product
Process for Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction (steps 3 and 4) 3.Determine solubility of each product in water use the solubility rules if product is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate 4.If neither product will precipitate, write no reaction after the arrow
Process for Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction (steps 5) 5.If any of the possible products are insoluble, write their formulas as the products of the reaction using (s) after the formula to indicate solid. Write any soluble products with (aq) after the formula to indicate aqueous.
Process for Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction (step 6)pg 153 6.Balance the equation remember to only change coefficients, not subscripts
ionize: 1.Convert (an atom, molecule, or substance) into an ion or ions, typically by removing one or more electrons.