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Chemistry: Unit #2

Unit #2 Info Chem 1015

QuestionAnswer
What is the law of constant composition? All samples of a given compound have the same propotions of their constituent elements.
What is a chemical formula? A representation of a compound which indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms of each.
Which elements are usually listed first in a chemical formula? The most metallic elements are listed first. If there is not a metallic element in the compount, the more metal-like element is listed first (Those to the left of the periodic table are more metal-like than those towards the right).
What is a molecular formula? A formula that gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound.
What is a structural formula? Uses lines to represent chemical bonds and shows how the atoms in a molecule are connected to each other.
What is a molecular model? Three-dimensional representations of molecules.
What is an atomic element? Elements that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units.
What is a molecular element? Elements that do not normally exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units. They exist as diatomic molecules.
Common elements that exist as molecular elements (diatomic molecules). Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine.
What is a molecular compound? Compounds formed from two or more nonmetals.
What is an ionic compound? Compounds that contain one or more cations (+ charged ions) paired with one or more anions (- charged ions).
What is the first type of ionic compound? Metals that forms only one type of ion in a compound. Typically found in Group 1A and 2A. Also, Al, Zn, and Ag.
What is the second type of ionic compound? Compound that contains a metal with a charge that can differ in different compounds. Typically found in the transition metal section of the periodic table.
What are binary compounds? Compound that contain only two different elements.
How do you name a binary ionic compound containing an metal that forms only one type of ion? Name of the metal + Base name of the nonmetal + ide
How do you name a binary ionic compound containing an metal that forms more than one type of ion? Name of the metal + (Charge of metal in roman numerals) + Base name of nonmetal + ide
How do you name a molecular compound? (prefix (# of atoms present) + name of 1st element) + (prefix + name of the 2nd element)
What are acids? Molecular compounds that produce H+ ions when dissolved in water. They are composed of H and one or more non-metals.
What are binary acids? Acids that contain only hydrogen and a nonmetal.
What are oxyacids? Acids that contain hydrogen, a nonmetal, and oxygen.
How do you name binary acids? hydro+base name of nonmetal+ ic + acid
What is a mole (mol) [also known as Avogadro's #]? 1 mol = 6.022 x 10^23
What is the general solution map to go from grams of a particular element to mol of a particular element? Given weight of an element (in grams) x (1 mol of that element / molar mass of that element found from the periodic table).
What is the general solution map to go from grams of a particular element to # atoms of that particular element? Given weight of an element (in grams) x (1 mol of that element / molar mass of that element from the periodic table) x (6.022x10^23 / 1 mol of that element).
What is the general form for solving problems where you are asked to find the mass of an element present in a given mass of a compound? Mass compound --> Moles compound --> Moles element --> Mass element
How do you calculate the mass percent composition? (Mass of X in a sample of the compound / Mass of the sample of the compound) x 100%
How do you calculate the mass percent of a composition from a chemical formula? (Mass of element X in 1 mol compound / Mass of 1 mol of compound) x 100%
What is a chemical bond in Lewis' theory? A bond that involves the sharing or transfer of electrons to attain stable electron configurations for the bonding atoms.
What is an ionic bond? A bond that forms when electrons are transferred.
What is a covalent bond? A bond that forms when electrons are shared.
What is the octet rule? In chemical bonding, atoms transfer or share electrons to obtain outer shells with eight electrons.
What is the first step in writing a Lewis structure for a covalent compound? Write the correct skeletal structure for the molecule. Note that H atoms will always be terminal and many molecules tend to be symmetrical (so when a molecule contains several atoms of the same type, these tend to be in terminal positions).
What is the second step in writing a Lewis structure for a covalent compound? Calculate the total number of electrons for the Lewis structure by summing the valence electrons of each atom in the molecule. (Add 1 electron for each negative charge and subtract 1 electron for each positive charge for polyatomic ions).
What is the third step in writing a Lewis structure for a covalent compound? Distribute the electrons amoung the atoms, giving the octets to as many atoms as possible.
What is the fourth step in writing a Lewis structure for a covalent compound? If any atoms lack an octet, form double or triple binds as necessary to give them octets. Do this by moving lone electron pairs from terminal atoms into the bonding region with the central atom.
Created by: reed0370